Name

FRANK, Bjoern

Official Title

Associate Professor

Affiliation

(School of Commerce)

Profile

Bjoern FRANK (フランク ビョーン)

counter to blogspot

Sub-affiliation

Affiliated Institutes

イノベーション研究所

研究所員 2018-

Educational background・Degree

Educational background

2006/10 -2009/03 Tokyo Institute of Technology Department of Industrial Engineering and Management
2003/10 -2005/12 Technische Universität Darmstadt Graduate Course in Industrial Engineering
2001/09 -2006/03 Ecole Centrale de Lyon Graduate Course in General Engineering

Degree

Doctor of Engineering Tokyo Institute of Technology Management

Master of Engineering Ecole Centrale de Lyon

Master of Science in Industrial Engineering Technische Universität Darmstadt

Career

2018/04-Waseda UniversityFaculty of CommerceAssociate Professor
2012/08-AOTS (since 2012), Sophia University (2018), Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (2014-2017), Rikkyo University (2014-2017)Adjunct Lecturer
2015/04-2018/03Sophia UniversityGraduate School of Global Environmental StudiesAssociate Professor
2009/04-2015/03Tokyo Institute of TechnologyDepartment of Industrial Engineering and ManagementAssistant Professor

Academic Society Joined

American Marketing Association

Academy of Marketing Science Editorial Review Board (Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science)

Japanese Society for Quality Control Delegate, Editorial Board (Journal of the Japanese Society for Quality Control)

Japan Industrial Management Association Area Editor (Journal of the Japan Industrial Management Association)

Japan Society of Marketing and Distribution

Award

Best Reviewer Award

2019Conferment Institution:Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

Best Paper Award (strategic marketing and branding track)

2017Conferment Institution:ANZMAC (Australian & New Zealand Marketing Academy) Conference

Best Paper Award (entrepreneurship and innovation track)

2016Conferment Institution:ANZMAC (Australian & New Zealand Marketing Academy) Conference

Nikkei Quality Control Literature Prize

2015Conferment Institution:Nihon Keizai Shimbun (major Japanese newspaper)

Nikkei Quality Control Literature Prize

2013Conferment Institution:Nihon Keizai Shimbun (major Japanese newspaper)

Best Reviewer Award

2013Conferment Institution:Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

Best Reviewer Award

2012Conferment Institution:Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

Best Reviewer Award

2011Conferment Institution:Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

Best Paper Award

2010Conferment Institution:Asian Network for Quality Congress

Tejima Dissertation Award

2010Conferment Institution:Tokyo Institute of Technology

Research Encouragement Award

2009Conferment Institution:Japanese Society for Quality Control

Research Field

Keywords

customer relationship management, international marketing, green marketing (CSR), new product development

Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research classification

Social sciences / Management / Commerce

Paper

Employee-Level Open Innovation in Emerging Markets: Linking Internal, External, and Managerial Resources

Y.F. Badir, B. Frank, M. Bogers

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science Peer Review Yes published online, print version forthcoming2019-

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Outline:Leveraging external sources of knowledge has become a vital element of innovation strategy, especially in emerging markets, where many firms lack the sophisticated knowledge required to innovate. However, extant research in this domain puts little emphasis on emerging economies and also typically treats openness as a firm-level concept. In contrast, this study investigates how individual employees rely on both internal and external knowledge to increase their innovative work output (and, secondarily, their customer acquisition performance) and how their supervising manager’s characteristics moderate these mechanisms. Using hierarchical linear modeling of data collected from 123 employees and 50 managers in telecommunications companies in the emerging market of Vietnam, we find support for our hypothesized relationships. These findings have important implications for research and practice as they highlight the role of the individual employee in open innovation, the need for considering a more distributed set of organizational functions, and the relevance for emerging markets.

Consumers' Switching to Disruptive Technology Products: The Roles of Comparative Economic Value and Technology Type

A. Kamolsook, Y.F. Badir, B. Frank

Technological Forecasting and Social Change Peer Review Yes 140p.328 - 3402019-

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Publish Classification:Research paper (scientific journal)

Outline:This study explores consumers' motivations to switch to new products in the context of disruptive innovation, and investigates the role of technology differences (i.e., network externality vs. stand-alone technology). Switching from an existing technology product to a disruptive technology product (DTP) involves not only benefits but also requires major sacrifices, which are not encountered in the context of continuous innovation. To model the tradeoff between the benefits and sacrifices, this study extends the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model by introducing the construct of comparative economic value (CEV). Based on Thai consumer data, analyses support the hypothesized mediating role of CEV. CEV mediates the effects of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and facilitating conditions, and partially mediates the effect of social influence on the DTP switching intent. Multi-group analysis shows that CEV depends more on effort expectancy for network externality technology and more on the performance expectancy for stand-alone technology.

Consumer Desire for Personalization of Products and Services: Cultural Antecedents and Consequences for Customer Evaluations

B. Herbas Torrico, B. Frank

Total Quality Management & Business Excellence Peer Review Yes 30(3-4) p.355 - 3692019-

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Outline:In order to satisfy customers, marketers increasingly provide customers with the means to personalise their products and services. Based on the social identity approach and international consumer data, this article explores the antecedents and consequences of consumer desires for internal personalisation (perceiving a distinctive identity) and external personalisation (communicating a distinctive identity) of products and services. In terms of antecedents, the results show that desire for (both internal and external) personalisation tends to be influenced negatively by age and positively by both individualism (vs. collectivism) and uncertainty avoidance. In terms of consequences, the results indicate that desire for personalisation moderates the formation of affective, but not cognitive, customer satisfaction. Moreover, desire for personalisation enhances the relative importance of perceived usage benefits, compared with physical performance, in customer evaluations of products and services. These results have important implications for the design and marketing of products and services.

Corporate Social Responsibility in Bolivia: Meanings and Consequences

B. Herbas Torrico, B. Frank, C. Arandia Tavera

International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility Peer Review Yes 3(7) p.1 - 132018-

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Outline:Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been studied extensively in developed countries. However, although most of the world’s consumers live in developing countries, the study of CSR in developing countries in general, and in Bolivia in particular, still is very limited. Developing countries are characterized by widespread poverty, corruption, inequality, social exploitation, and environmental pollution and, consequently, offer abundant opportunities for CSR. In addition, research on CSR in developing countries has the potential to promote equality, social justice, transparency, and accountability by holding frequently irresponsible local and international organizations to account. For that purpose, this study explores the nature of CSR practices and their effectiveness in influencing consumer attitudes in Bolivia as the least developed among the developing countries in the Americas. To this end, this study uses data collected in Bolivia through both structured surveys (quantitative data) and unstructured questionnaires/in-depth interviews (qualitative data). Using structural equation modeling of the quantitative data on two product categories and multiple brand contexts from 1016 consumers, this study tests a series of hypotheses on the consequences of CSR practices in developing countries. The results indicate that CSR practices exert both a direct influence on customer satisfaction and an indirect, mediated influence on customer loyalty. Moreover, the results of qualitative data analysis suggest that multinational companies and young managers are leading the way in implementing CSR practices in Bolivia. Managerial implications are discussed.

Understanding Consumer Reactions to Product Contamination Risks after National Disasters: The Roles of Knowledge, Experience, and Information Sources

B. Frank, S.J. Schvaneveldt

Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services Peer Review Yes 28p.199 - 2082016-

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Outline:This study shows that not all consumers intend to decrease purchases of potentially contaminated products after disasters; some rather intend to increase purchases. Purchase intent reductions derive from contamination risk knowledge, which depends on observed behavior of other consumers, objective media information, and past opposition to the technology causing contamination. Technology hazard expertise reinforces the effects of consumers' risk assessments and of past opposition to technology use. By contrast, purchase intent increases derive from empathy and salient social identity shared with disaster victims, which are triggered by affect-laden media exposure, past disaster-related experience, and disaster involvement of consumers' social networks.

The Role of Individualism vs. Collectivism in the Formation of Repurchase Intent: A Cross-Industry Comparison of the Effects of Cultural and Personal Values

B. Frank, T. Enkawa, S.J. Schvaneveldt

Journal of Economic Psychology Peer Review Yes 51p.261 - 2782015-

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Outline:As repurchase intent drives profitability and firms are facing culturally diverse customers, managers should know how individualism (vs. collectivism) influences the formation of repurchase intent. This research models individualism as a dimension of both national culture and personal values. Based on HLM of data from six countries and ten industries, study 1 shows that cultural individualism is more influential than personal individualism. Individualism positively moderates the effect of customer satisfaction and negatively moderates the effects of public brand image and relational switching costs on repurchase intent. While the effects of customer satisfaction and relational switching costs are moderated more strongly for services, the effect of public brand image is moderated more strongly for products. Study 2 illuminates psychological processes operating behind these moderating effects: importance of relational switching costs – reliance on salespeople; importance of public brand image – meeting social preferences (impressing others, expressing group identify), but not trustworthiness; importance of customer satisfaction – customization, distinctiveness, but not functional benefits. This research also tests extant theories about the main effect of individualism on repurchase intent. The results provide valuable, novel suggestions for cross-cultural adaptation of marketing strategy.

Antecedents and Consequences of Innate Willingness to Pay for Innovations: Understanding Motivations and Consumer Preferences of Prospective Early Adopters

B. Frank, T. Enkawa, S.J. Schvaneveldt, B. Herbas Torrico

Technological Forecasting and Social Change Peer Review Yes 99p.252 - 2662015-

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Outline:Managers use knowledge of innate consumer innovativeness (inherent interest in new products and services) to adapt the marketing mix to preferences of the consumers most likely to adopt new products/services. As mere interest in new products/services may not sufficiently characterize early adopters in contexts with price differences between established and innovative, new products/services, this article introduces the concept of innate willingness to pay for innovations (IWTPI). Based on data from Germany, Indonesia, Bolivia, USA, and Japan, it tests hypotheses about the antecedents to IWTPI, the moderating effects of IWTPI on the formation of customer satisfaction, and their differences between products and services. IWTPI tends to be positively influenced by income (satisfaction), financial expectations, and importance of status symbols and negatively influenced by female gender, savings orientation, and stress avoidance. These effects are moderated by cultural and economic factors. IWTPI positively moderates the effects of perceived quality (only for products, not services), competitive advantages, public brand image, and social recognition and negatively moderates the effect of perceived value on customer satisfaction. These results inform managers on how to adapt marketing strategy to early vs. late adopters in different country and industry contexts with price differences between established and innovative, new products/services.

Affect versus Cognition in the Chain from Perceived Quality to Customer Loyalty: The Roles of Product Beliefs and Experience

B. Frank, B. Herbas Torrico, T. Enkawa, S.J. Schvaneveldt

Journal of Retailing Peer Review Yes 90(4) p.567 - 5862014-

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Outline:To support managerial practice and help improve analytical models in retailing, this article extends the literature on processes in the psychological chain of effects from perceived quality to customer loyalty by making three original and fundamental contributions. Based on multilevel structural equation modeling of consumer data from Bolivia, Japan, and the USA, it shows that product beliefs mediate this chain of effects and that cross-over effects connect rational and emotional processes within this chain. Moreover, it elucidates conditions moderating the strength of these emotional and rational processes. Breadth of experience positively moderates the mediating role of product beliefs. Relative price positively moderates the effect of hedonic product beliefs on affective customer satisfaction and negatively moderates the effect of utilitarian product beliefs on cognitive customer satisfaction. Time since purchase positively moderates the role of emotional processes and negatively moderates the role of rational processes. The moderating effects of sensory, affective, and intellectual brand experience support the predictive validity of the research model. Further analyses illuminate how social recognition, customer value co-creation through product usage patterns, and product-service bundling affect product beliefs, as well as how affective and cognitive customer satisfaction influence positive word-of-mouth.

Self-Preservation vs. Collective Resilience as Consumer Responses to National Disasters: A Study on Radioactive Product Contamination

B. Frank, S.J. Schvaneveldt

Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management Peer Review Yes 22(4) p.197 - 2082014-

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Outline:This article extends the literature on consumer reactions to national disasters. Because of the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japanese consumers face the long‐term risk of radioactive product contamination as products come from contaminated regions. When facing this risk in purchase situations, Japanese consumers have the choice of reducing their purchases to protect personal health from perceived risk or increasing their purchases to economically support suffering Japanese regions. Based on analysis of variance and regression analysis of data on mobile phones and fast food restaurants from 99 consumers in Japan and 677 consumers in the United States, this study confirms that consumers respond to the risk of radioactive product contamination by reduced or increased purchase intent. Moreover, it finds that purchase intent reductions (vs. increases) vary by consumer age and are more pronounced for fast food restaurants than mobile phones, for non‐Japanese consumers in Japan and the United States than for Japanese consumers in Japan, and for more health‐conscious consumers. While purchase intent reductions only weakly depend on cultural values, they tend to be positively influenced by uncertainty avoidance and negatively influenced by individualism, masculinity values and long‐term orientation. This article thus informs policy makers and marketing managers on how to more effectively address psychological needs of different consumer segments to support the economic reconstruction of disaster‐stricken regions.

Strategic Openness in Quality Control: Adjusting NPD Strategic Orientation to Optimize Quality Control

D.C. Wimalachandra, B. Frank, T. Enkawa

International Journal of Industrial Engineering: Theory, Applications and Practice Peer Review Yes 21(6) p.348 - 3592014-

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ISSN:1943-670X

Outline:Many innovative firms have shifted to an ‘open innovation’ strategy by using a wide range of external information. An emerging area in the literature on new product development (NPD) deals with strategies adopted by NPD departments to maximize product quality. This article tests and demonstrates that the open innovation paradigm can be extended to the area of product quality control practices in the NPD process. Using data collected in 10 countries, this study investigates the importance of external information acquired through B2B/B2C customer, competitor, technology, and manufacturing orientation in meeting quality and performance specifications of newly developed products, and the interconnected roles of B2B and B2C customer orientation in meeting these specifications. The results show that B2C customer orientation alone is not beneficial for meeting quality and performance specifications of newly developed products in B2B contexts, whereas in the presence of B2B affective information management, B2C customer orientation helps firms meet these specifications.

How Do the Success Factors Driving Repurchase Intent Differ between Male and Female Customers?

B. Frank, T. Enkawa, S.J. Schvaneveldt

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science Peer Review Yes 42(2) p.171 - 1852014-

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Outline:As customers’ repurchase behavior leads to long-term corporate profitability, managers should know the success factors influencing repurchase intent. Knowledge of gender differences in these success factors would enable managers to separately optimize repurchase intent for men and women. This research thus develops original hypotheses on gender differences in the formation of repurchase intent. Based on hierarchical linear modeling of data from five countries and ten industries, this research finds that public brand image more strongly influences customer satisfaction and repurchase intent for women than for men. Perceived value has a weaker effect on repurchase intent for women than for men. The analyses do not detect any gender difference in the influence of customer satisfaction on repurchase intent. Contrary to conventional wisdom, relational switching costs more strongly influence repurchase intent for men than for women. Further analyses illustrate moderating effects of country differences in gender egalitarianism and of contextual differences between products and services.

Regional Differences in Consumer Preference Structures within China

B. Frank, G. Abulaiti, T. Enkawa

Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services Peer Review Yes 21(2) p.203 - 2102014-

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Outline:This study examines whether a single marketing strategy is sufficient to cover the Chinese market. Using data from four regions and nine industries, it finds that major regional differences in consumer preferences make regional market segmentation an attractive option. In more developed regions, consumers rely more on perceived quality and public brand image but less on quality expectations. Uyghurs care more about perceived quality and personal recognition but less about quality expectations than Han Chinese. Personal recognition is more important to southern than northern Chinese. Overall, consumer preference structures are influenced more strongly by differences in economic development than subculture.

Leveraging Customer Orientation to Build Customer Value in Industrial Relationships

D.C. Wimalachandra, B. Frank, T. Enkawa

Journal of Japanese Operations Management and Strategy Peer Review Yes 4(2) p.46 - 612014-

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Outline:While the importance of customer value creation has been confirmed in numerous studies in the literature, there is a lack of empirical studies on how new product development may optimize distinct types of B2B customer value. This study develops a conceptual framework considering four dimensions of B2B customer value (functional, cost, hedonic, and symbolic) and two dimensions of B2B customer orientation: needs orientation and relationship orientation. Based on data collected in 10 countries, hierarchical linear modeling is used to test hypotheses on the decomposed effects of these different B2B customer orientation approaches on the creation of each type of B2B customer value. Numerous theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed.

How Do Asia's Two Most Important Consumer Markets Differ? Japanese-Chinese Differences in Customer Satisfaction and Its Formation

B. Frank, G. Abulaiti, B. Herbas Torrico, T. Enkawa

Journal of Business Research Peer Review Yes 66(12) p.2397 - 24052013-

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Outline:Little is known about international differences in the formation of customer satisfaction, particularly regarding developed and emerging markets in Asia. This lack of knowledge limits the competitiveness of Western companies in Asia. From the perspectives of economic and cultural country differences, this study thus compares customer satisfaction and its formation between Japan, China, and Germany (Western reference country). Customer satisfaction is higher in Japan than China for goods and private services but lower for public services. It is influenced more strongly by perceived quality and less strongly by perceived value (difference moderated by switching costs), public brand image, and quality expectations in Japan than China. Economic differences between developed (Japan, Germany) and emerging (China) markets influence consumer preference structures more strongly than cultural differences. Due to larger inter-Asian cultural variance than Western managers might expect, Chinese consumer preference structures differ more from Japanese than German consumer preference structures.

Elucidation of the Mechanism behind the Influences of Uncertainty Avoidance on Customer Attitudes towards Japanese Products and Services

B. Frank, B. Herbas Torrico, T. Enkawa

Journal of the Japan Industrial Management Association Peer Review Yes 63(4) p.201 - 2092013-

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Outline:Sparked by accelerating globalization, many studies have examined the influences of Hofstede's cultural scores on consumer attitudes. Past research suggested that high uncertainty avoidance, a characteristic of Japanese culture, leads to strict customer evaluations and low customer satisfaction. While researchers found clear evidence of this effect for uncertainty avoidance as a facet of country culture, they found mixed evidence for uncertainty avoidance as a personal cultural trait. Based on consumer data from ten industries in Japan, this article thus explores the mechanism linking personal uncertainty avoidance to customer satisfaction and its antecedents (perceived quality, perceived value and firm image). The results suggest that personal uncertainty avoidance does not influence customer satisfaction directly but indirectly through its antecedents. Moreover, this mechanism is much stronger for products than for services. These and other findings provide new insights about the effectiveness of personal cultural orientations as variables for market segmentation.

What Characterizes Chinese Consumer Behavior? A Cross-Industry Analysis of the Chinese Diaspora in Japan

B. Frank, G. Abulaiti, T. Enkawa

Marketing Letters Peer Review Yes 23(3) p.683 - 7002012-

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Outline:In order to profit from China’s enormous business opportunities, international firms need to know Chinese consumer preferences. To learn more about intrinsic Chinese consumer preferences and their distinction from other Asian consumer preferences, this study analyzes differences in the formation of customer satisfaction, repurchase intent, and word-of-mouth intent between Chinese-born and locally born consumers in Japan. Verifying culture-based hypotheses, cross-industry analyses show that Chinese-born consumers pay less attention to the public brand image and risk-related switching costs, but more attention to quality expectations, perceived value, experienced usefulness, and financial switching costs than Japanese consumers. Marketing strategies should account for these preference structures.

Consumer Attitudes and Intentions towards Fast Food Restaurants: How Do Teenagers Differ from Adults?

B. Frank

Managing Service Quality Peer Review Yes 22(3) p.260 - 2822012-

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Outline:Purpose – Past research showed that overly positive attitudes and intentions towards fast food contribute to obesity. In the face of rising childhood obesity, the purpose of this paper is to explore attitudinal and behavioral reasons behind adolescents' suboptimal food choices. It tests hypotheses about differences between teenagers and adults in customer attitudes and intentions regarding fast food restaurants. Design/methodology/approach – The hypotheses are tested with German survey data and moderated regression analysis. Findings – Teenagers do not underestimate the negative effects of fast food. However, their decision making fails to incorporate existing knowledge on competitive advantages and gives greater weight to customer satisfaction compared with adults. Behavioral differences between teenage and adult consumers result from differences in cognitive development rather than social pressure. Research limitations/implications – As this study uses subjective consumer data from Germany, future research could validate the conclusions with objective behavioral data from various countries. Practical implications – Of importance to fast food restaurant managers, the primary determinants of customer attitudes and intentions are food quality, the public brand image, social recognition, and perceived competitive advantages. By contrast, service quality and perceived value are less influential. Satisfying teenage customers is more important than informing them about competitive advantages. Social implications – The results imply that fast food‐related childhood obesity may be caused by lack of rationality rather than peer pressure or lack of knowledge. Originality/value – As an original contribution, the paper compares adolescents' and adults' decision making regarding fast food restaurants and captures the regularly overlooked influences of the public brand image, social recognition, and perceived competitive advantages.

A Cross-Country Comparison of the Mechanisms Relating Customer Satisfaction and Market Share

G. Abulaiti, B. Herbas Torrico, S. Hachiya, Y. Matsukawa, B. Frank, S.J. Schvaneveldt, T. Enkawa

Journal of the Japanese Society for Quality Control Peer Review Yes 42(3) p.95 - 1052012-

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Outline:In order to retain existing and acquire new customers, companies make efforts to increase customer satisfaction (CS). However, Fornell's well-known research indicates that CS and contemporaneous market share are either negatively or not correlated. This finding challenges the effectiveness of increasing CS to expand market share. To more deeply explore this mechanism, this study puts forward the hypotheses that the relationship between CS and market share varies across both industries and countries. Based on consumer data from eight industries in eight countries, this study identifies two moderators of the relationships between market share and CS -related measures such as CS, perceived quality, perceived value, and firm image : 1) economic development and 2) the industry-specific CS relative to the country average. Fornell's theory of a negative relationship between CS and market share only holds in industries with low relative CS in developed countries. By contrast, the relationship tends to be positive in developing countries and in industries with high relative CS in developed countries.

How Should Foreign Retailers Deal With Chinese Consumers? A Cross-National Comparison of the Formation of Customer Satisfaction

G. Abulaiti, B. Frank, T. Enkawa, S.J. Schvaneveldt

Journal of Marketing Channels Peer Review Yes 18(4) p.353 - 3732011-

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Outline:China is becoming one of the world's most attractive retail markets. Though the literature lacks a comprehensive theory on country differences in the formation of customer satisfaction, such knowledge would enable foreign retailers to better adapt their marketing strategies to Chinese consumers. This study creates such a theory and tests it with data from seven countries. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that country differences in economic development and culture influence both (a) the level of customer satisfaction and (b) how customer satisfaction is influenced by its antecedents. Additional analyses specifically inform foreign retailers about how to adapt to Chinese consumer needs.

Influences of the Economic Crisis on Customer Attitudes and the Moderating Role of Culture

G. Abulaiti, T. Enkawa, B. Frank

Peer Review Yes 40(2) p.69 - 772010-

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Outline:In the face of intense competition, companies try to retain and acquire customers by improving customer satisfaction (CS). Recent research indicates that CS is not only influenced by companies' customer orientation but also by unrelated external factors such as economic fluctuations. To better understand these mechanisms, this study explores the influences of the 2008 world economic crisis on firm-related customer attitudes (CS, perceived value, corporate image) and the moderating effects of culture on these influences. It utilizes data from a questionnaire survey which was conducted in two waves, before and after the 2008 world economic crisis, and measured Japanese customers' cultural traits and firm-related attitudes in 14 industries. This study yields the following results. (1) The economic crisis positively influences CS but not perceived value and corporate image. (2) Culture affects all analyzed indicators of firm-related customer attitudes. They are positively influenced by risk aversion and negatively by technical orientation. (3) The effects of the economic crisis on firm-related customer attitudes are weaker for risk-averse and collectivist customers and more positive for working customers than for housewives. These results imply the existence of economic and cultural biases in the formation of customer satisfaction, which marketing strategy should take into consideration.

Economic Influences on Customer Satisfaction and Their Difference by Core and Peripheral Functions

B. Frank, T. Enkawa, N. Okuma

Journal of the Japan Industrial Management Association Peer Review Yes 60(2) p.87 - 942009-

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Outline:Recent literature has revealed that CS (customer satisfaction) is not only driven by corporate efforts at the micro level, but also by economic processes at the macro level. Using time-series data from three durable goods industries, pioneer work in this field discovered that CS is negatively influenced by the stock index, a measure of economic expectations. Extending their research and adding new data measured in 2004 and 2007, analyses were conducted under the following two hypotheses: 1) CS is influenced negatively by economic expectations and positively by economic growth, and 2) economic expectations should have a particularly strong influence on CS with peripheral product functions, compared to CS with core product functions. These hypotheses were supported, but the positive impact of economic growth on CS was not significant in all analyses. Managers and researchers should design methods to correct longitudinal CS values from economic influences, so that they better reflect the customer-oriented performance of firms.

Removing Economic Influences from Customer Satisfaction Scores to Assess Managerial Performance in Marketing

B. Frank, S. Sudo, T. Enkawa

Journal of the Japanese Society for Quality Control Peer Review Yes 39(1) p.119 - 1282009-

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Outline:Customer orientation is an important driver of business performance. In order to measure the development of customer orientation over time, managers conduct CS (customer satisfaction) surveys for several years and interpret CS variations as linked to their firm's actions. Based on time-series data from three durable goods industries and a hospital, this study identifies significant influences of economic growth and economic expectations on firm-level CS. This means that CS variations are not only caused by firm-level actions but also by economic processes. Managers should be careful when interpreting economic-induced CS variations as consequences of their own actions. This article thus proposes two methods to correct CS scores by removing economic influences: 1) remove the influence of economic expectations, 2) remove the influence of economic growth and economic expectations. It is shown that these methods strongly reinforce the correlation between CS scores and future business performance. These results demonstrate that correcting CS scores helps managers gain performance-relevant information that cannot be read from the original scores.

Economic Drivers of Dwelling Satisfaction: Evidence from Germany

B. Frank, T. Enkawa

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis Peer Review Yes 2(1) p.6 - 202009-

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Outline:Purpose – Sociologists are discussing whether or not economic growth enhances subjective well‐being. To complement their research from a housing perspective, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether aggregate income enhances dwelling satisfaction over time. While cross‐sectional studies have only examined the direct influence of income on dwelling satisfaction, this paper suggests that there are additional influences mediated by other social indicators. Design/methodology/approach – Based on data from Germany, correlation and regression analyses examine the impacts of aggregate income and other social indicators on dwelling satisfaction. Path analysis is used to test for the existence of mediated relationships. Findings – The paper finds that aggregate income positively influences dwelling satisfaction. Environmental satisfaction, customer satisfaction and satisfaction with family relations also positively impact dwelling satisfaction and mediate influences of aggregate income. The mediated effects are stronger than the direct effect of aggregate income on dwelling satisfaction. Research limitations/implications – The longitudinal availability of aggregate customer satisfaction data is still limited. Future research on dwelling satisfaction is encouraged to account for customer satisfaction and to reexamine the analyses of this study with future data. Practical implications – Stimulating economic growth is a good strategy to improve dwelling satisfaction. Policies improving the environment, family support and shopping opportunities are also effective. Originality/value – This paper is original in that it examines the impacts of economic growth and customer satisfaction on dwelling satisfaction. While the extant literature has only analysed direct effects of income on dwelling satisfaction, this study also accounts for mediated effects.

Economic Influences on Customer Satisfaction: An International Comparison

B. Frank, T. Enkawa

International Journal of Business Environment Peer Review Yes 2(3) p.336 - 3552009-

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Outline:The marketing literature has extensively analysed firm-level influences on customer satisfaction. Since macro-level customer satisfaction data have not become available until recently, researchers have just taken first steps towards analysing economic influences on customer satisfaction. Identifying economic influences is important because their existence would impair the interpretability of corporate customer satisfaction surveys. Using principal component and regression analyses, we examine economic influences on customer satisfaction across a number of countries: Denmark, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Sweden and the USA. Our analyses reveal that economic expansion exerts a positive influence on customer satisfaction, whereas economic expectations exert a negative influence. As a measure to improve today's quality management practices, we thus recommend that firms correct the scores of multiperiod customer satisfaction surveys for economic influences.

Interpreting Time Series of Patient Satisfaction: Macro vs. Micro Components

B. Frank, S. Sudo, T. Enkawa

Peer Review Yes 19(1) p.15 - 392009-

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Outline:Recent research discovered that economic processes influence national averages of customer satisfaction. Using time-series data from Japanese and South Korean hospitals, we conducted principal component regression analyses to examine whether these findings are transferable to patient satisfaction. Our results reveal that aggregate income has a positive impact and economic expectations have a negative impact on patient satisfaction. Further analyses demonstrate that these strong economic influences make it difficult for hospital managers to use patient satisfaction scores to assess the performance impact of their customer-oriented actions. In order to improve performance evaluations based on patient surveys, we thus recommend managers to remove economic influences from time-series of patient satisfaction.

Does Economic Growth Enhance Life Satisfaction? The Case of Germany

B. Frank, T. Enkawa

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy Peer Review Yes 29(7/8) p.313 - 3292009-

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Outline:Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether economic growth enhances life satisfaction. It provides a conceptual solution to the heavily debated Easterlin paradox which states that aggregate income positively relates to life satisfaction in one‐time international comparisons but not in longitudinal analyses. First empirical results are presented for Germany. Design/methodology/approach – The present study uses path analysis to capture not only direct but also mediated effects of economic growth on life satisfaction. Findings – The paper finds that economic growth does enhance life satisfaction over time. The effect is not direct but mediated via consumer confidence, customer satisfaction, income satisfaction, health satisfaction and job satisfaction. Modeled by consumer confidence, adaptive expectations reduce this effect but cannot entirely compensate for it, as suggested by literature. In addition to this negative compensatory effect which is mediated by customer satisfaction, consumer confidence has a positive direct influence on life satisfaction. Research limitations/implications – Since the history of aggregate customer satisfaction measurement is still young, this empirical analysis should be seen as pioneer work. Future research on the Easterlin paradox should utilize future data, model mediated relationships and time lags, and integrate customer satisfaction and consumer confidence. Practical implications – Economic growth strategies are successful in raising life satisfaction. Governments should not only pay attention to quantitative but also to qualitative growth. Collective optimism can improve life satisfaction. Originality/value – This study contributes to solving the Easterlin paradox. Unlike the extant literature on the Easterlin paradox, this paper integrates national customer satisfaction and consumer confidence into a sociologic model and explicitly accounts for mediated effects. National customer satisfaction is used to model qualitative aspects of economic growth.

Economic Influences on Perceived Value, Quality Expectations, and Customer Satisfaction

B. Frank, T. Enkawa

International Journal of Consumer Studies Peer Review Yes 33(1) p.72 - 812009-

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Outline:Consumer research has extensively analysed psychological determinants of customer satisfaction. As macro‐level customer satisfaction data were not available until recently, researchers have only taken first steps towards analysing economic determinants of customer satisfaction. Based on a more complex conceptual framework and on data from Germany and Japan, this article examines how economic processes influence the perceived value of goods and services, quality expectations and customer satisfaction. Using principal component analysis, regression analysis and structural equation modelling, this study finds that perceived value is positively influenced by both economic growth and lagged economic expectations. Customer satisfaction is positively influenced by economic growth and negatively by current economic expectations, with half of the impact mediated by perceived value. Economic expectations positively influence expectations regarding the quality of goods and services. These results imply that consumer researchers should no longer ignore economic influences on consumer attitudes. Marketing managers are advised to be cautious not to misinterpret economic‐induced variations in customer satisfaction as caused by corporate performance.

Does Aggregate Income Influence Satisfaction with the Standard of Living?

B. Frank, T. Enkawa

International Journal of Society Systems Science Peer Review Yes 1(2) p.113 - 1312008-

DOIlink

Detail

Outline:Sociologists have been arguing whether aggregate income enhances subjective well-being and, more specifically, satisfaction with the standard of living. The empirical results were mixed. This article suggests that aggregate income affects standard-of-living satisfaction not only directly but also indirectly. Using path analysis and a dataset from Germany, this study finds that absolute income, short-term income fluctuations, and income inequality do not have direct impacts on standard-of-living satisfaction. However, they have indirect impacts mediated by income satisfaction, aggregate customer satisfaction, and satisfaction with the household role. Hence, public policy can rely on economic growth to enhance standard-of-living satisfaction. Government must ensure that economic growth translates into more satisfactory consumption experiences and that growing economic activity rather strengthens than divides families. Future sociological research should account for mediated effects of aggregate income on subjective well-being and no longer ignore the role of customer satisfaction.

How Economic Growth Affects Customer Satisfaction

B. Frank, T. Enkawa

Asia Pacific Management Review Peer Review Yes 13(2) p.531 - 5442008-

link

Detail

ISSN:1029-3132

Outline:Changes in customer satisfaction are usually linked to a firm’s performance in satisfying its clients or to developments within its direct competitive environment. In order to correctly interpret such changes in corporate consumer surveys, managers should also account for macroeconomic influences on customer satisfaction. Using data from national consumer barometers in Germany, South Korea, Sweden, and the United States, this study reveals that economic growth positively affects customer satisfaction. Based on correlation analysis and Granger tests, these results challenge recent studies claiming that, conversely, there is a unidirectional impact of customer satisfaction on economic growth. With more comprehensive data from Germany, structural equation modeling shows that economic growth drives customer satisfaction via the expansion of the average consumer’s budget and via an increasing perceived value of offerings. The effect is stronger in high-tech industries, industries with rapid innovation cycles, and industries with fierce price competition.

Books And Publication

The Science of Customer Satisfaction: Strategies for Customer Value Creation

T. Enkawa, B. Frank

Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers2015-

Detali

Total Number of Pages:232ISBN:978-4-8171-9541-8

Research Grants & Projects

Grant-in-aids for Scientific Research Adoption Situation

Research Classification:Challenging Research (Exploratory)

Consumer Motives for Adopting Artificial Intelligence Products: Differences by Consumer Segment, Country Culture, and Product Type (Principal Investigator)

2019/07-2022/03

Allocation Class:¥6110000

Research Classification:Challenging Exploratory Research

Determinants and Behavioral Consequences of the Customer Value of Consumer Robotics: Differences by Culture, Product Type, and Usage Pattern (Principal Investigator)

2016/04-2019/03

Allocation Class:¥3250000

Research Classification:Young Researchers (A)

Personal and Social Motives for CSR-oriented Consumer Behavior: Differences by Culture, Industry, and Government Policy (Principal Investigator)

2015/04-2018/03

Allocation Class:¥14690000

Research Classification:Young Researchers (A)

Neglected International and Subnational Differences in the Success Factors of Customer Relationship Management (Principal Investigator)

2012/04-2015/03

Allocation Class:¥11830000

Research Classification:Scientific Research (C)

Elucidation of Rational and Emotional Processes in the Formation of Customer Satisfaction and Their Implications for Quality Design (Co-Investigator)

2012/04-2015/03

Allocation Class:¥5460000

Research Classification:Challenging Exploratory Research

Consumer Reactions to the Risk of Radioactive Product Contamination: Origins, Cross-Cultural Differences, and Countermeasures (Principal Investigator)

2012/04-2014/03

Allocation Class:¥3250000

Research Classification:Scientific Research (B)

International Differences in Customer Satisfaction and their Economic and Cultural Determinants (Co-Investigator / Research Collaborator)

2008/04-2011/03

Allocation Class:¥18070000

Research Classification:

Determinants and behavioral consequences of the customer value of consumer robotics: Differences by culture, product type, and usage pattern

2016/-0-2019/-0

Allocation Class:¥3250000

On-campus Research System

Special Research Project

Cross-national differences in the motives for CSR-oriented consumer behavior

2018

Research Results Outline:  CSR refers to business practices that benefitsociety (e.g., employee  CSR refers to business practices that benefitsociety (e.g., employees, local community), the environment, and consume...  CSR refers to business practices that benefitsociety (e.g., employees, local community), the environment, and consumers(e.g., consumer health). Rather than focusing on profits alone, CSR-orientedfirms are committed towards minimizing harmful effects, and maximizingbeneficial effects, of business processes on society. As empirical research onthe marketing benefits of CSR is still rare, context-specific, and narrow inscope, firms lack knowledge of how to adapt their CSR strategy across countriesto maximize their marketing benefits.  The results of this research indicate that consumerperceptions of a firm’s CSR impact consumer attitudes and consumer loyalty notonly in developed countries, but also in developing countries, for differentreasons. While consumers in developing countries frequently are not asdemanding as consumers in developed countries, they often feel they cannottrust in the fulfillment of domestic firms’ ethical obligations. In developing countriesCSR can remedy lack of trust in corporate practices and thus leads to increasedcustomer satisfaction and loyalty.  Further research investigates regional differencesin the influence of CSR, both regarding the overall influence and regarding theunderlying psychological processes. Another research project examines theinfluence of environmental CSR in artificial intelligence products and the regionalvariation in this influence.

環境イノベーションの利益性と実施における国家・業種・企業特性による差異

2018

Research Results Outline:  Green innovation refers to the improvement of a firm’s environmental  Green innovation refers to the improvement of a firm’s environmental sustainability through product and process innov...  Green innovation refers to the improvement of a firm’s environmental sustainability through product and process innovation. Firms engage in green innovation to address societal needs, to preserve environmental resources for future use, to minimize risk from regulations, and to differentiate the firm from competition. Rising societal expectations for ethical behavior and rising awareness of environmental limits have increased the importance of green innovation. Consequently, the literature has identified green innovation as a possible way of increasing a firm’s profitability. While green innovation has been shown to be beneficial, many firms have struggled at its implementation. Therefore, this particular research focuses on the implementation of green innovation within the firm.  One research project focuses on the firm’s executive-level strategic intent to pursue environmental sustainability and on its effectiveness in influencing the firm’s green operations and, consequently, the green innovation outcomes.  Based on a separate dataset, another research project focuses more specifically on green supplier cooperation. It illuminates the effects of green supplier cooperation on green innovation outcomes and their dependence on contextual conditions.

Lecture Course

Course TitleSchoolYearTerm
Environmental Marketing 1School of Commerce2020spring semester
Introduction to business 1School of Commerce2020spring semester
Green Marketing 1School of Commerce2020fall semester
International Consumer Behavior 1School of Commerce2020spring semester
Consumer Behavior IASchool of Commerce2020spring semester
Consumer Behavior IBSchool of Commerce2020fall semester
Consumer Behavior IIASchool of Commerce2020spring semester
Consumer Behavior IIBSchool of Commerce2020fall semester
Marketing and InnovationGraduate School of Commerce2020spring semester
Marketing and InnovationGraduate School of Commerce2020fall semester
Marketing and InnovationGraduate School of Commerce2020spring semester
Marketing and InnovationGraduate School of Commerce2020fall semester
Marketing and InnovationGraduate School of Commerce2020spring semester
Marketing and InnovationGraduate School of Commerce2020fall semester