カノスエ カズユキ

彼末 一之


教授 (https://researchmap.jp/read0068548/)







〒359-1192所沢市 三ヶ島2-579-15














研究所員 2010年-


研究所員 2014年-2014年


運営委員 2014年-2016年


研究所員 2017年-2021年


研究所員 2015年-


運営委員 2014年-2016年


運営委員 2016年-2018年


研究所員 2013年-2017年


研究所員 2018年-2022年


研究所員 2018年-



-1975年 東京工業大学 工学部 電気工学
-1977年 大阪大学 工学研究科 電気工学


工学博士 論文 大阪大学 制御・システム工学

医学博士 論文 大阪大学 環境生理学(含体力医学・栄養生理学)


2009年-早稲田大学グローバルCOE リーダー


日本生理学会 常任幹事

日本生気象学会 会長


Society for Neuroscience


The American Physiological Society

The Australian Neuroscience Society








複合領域 / 健康・スポーツ科学 / スポーツ科学

医歯薬学 / 基礎医学 / 環境生理学(含体力医学・栄養生理学)

総合生物 / 神経科学 / 神経生理学・神経科学一般























The influence of activation coupling of corresponding muscles of fingers and toew on the stability of coordinated movements of ipsilateral fingers and toes

T. Muraoka, M. Sakamoto, N. Mizuguchi, K. Nakagawa, and K. Kanosue

Behavioral Brain Research(being submitted)2012年-

Disturbance i hitting accuracy due to intentional change of target position

T. Higuchi, J. Norohoshi, T. Nagami, H. Nakata, K. Kanosue

PloS ONE(being submitted)2012年-

Brain activities during motor imagery of and action with and object

N. Mizuguchi, H. Nakata, T. Hayashi, M. Sakamoto, T. Muraoka, Y. Uchida, and K. Kanosue

Brain Res.(being submitted)2012年-

Factors influencing Artistic Choreography in the Individual Women Category in Aerobic Gymnastics with Special Regard to Transitions

Ying Liang, Hongbin Tang, and Kazuyuki Kanosue

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise(in press)2012年-

Dynamic visual acuity in baseball players is due to superior tracking abilities

Y. Uchida, D. Kudoh, T. Higuchi, M. Honda, and K. Kanosue

Medicine& Science in Sports & Exercise(in press)2012年-

Electromyographic analysis of lower limbs during baseball batting

H. Nakata, A. Miura, M. Yoshie, K. Kanosue, K. kudo

Journal of Stregth & Conditioning Research(in press)2012年-

The effect of fastball backspin rate on baseball hitting accuracy

T. Higuchi, J. Morohoshi, T. Nagami, H. Nakata, and K. kanosue

Journal of Applied Biomechanics(in press)2012年-

Modulation of corticospinal excitability during acquision of action sequences by observation

M. Sakamoto, N. Moriyama, N. Mizuguchi, T. Muraoka, and K. Kanosue

PloS One7(5)e370612012年05月-

Motor imagery and sport performance

N. Mizuguchi, H. Nakata, Y. Uchida, and K. Kanosue

The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine1(1)p.103 - 1112012年-

Relative importance of different surface regions for thermal comfort in human.

M. Nakamura, T. Yoda, M. Kasuga, Y. Uchida, K. Tokizawa, L. I. Crawshaw, K. Nagashima, and K. Kanosue

Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.(published online)2012年05月-


Influence of somatosensory input on corticospinal excitability during motor imagery

N. Mizuguchi, M. Sakamoto, T. Muraoka, N. Moriyama, K. Nakagawa, H. Nakata, and K. Kanosue

Neuroscience Letters514p.127 - 1302012年-

Effeect of hopping frequency on bilateral differences in leg stiffness

H. Hobara, K. Inoue, K. Kanosue

Journal of Applied Biomechanics(in press)2012年-



スポーツ科学研究8p.144 - 1542011年-

Object-specific modulation of corticospinal excitability during motor imagery of actions with objects.

N. Mizuguchi, M. Sakamoto, T. Muraoka, S. Naito, and K. Kanosue

PLoS ONE6(10)e26006

The Spin on Fastballs Thrown by Elite Baseball Oitchers

T. Nagami, J. Morohoshi, T. Higuchi, H. Nakata, S. Naito, and K. Kanosue

Medicine Science Sports Exercise43(12)p.2321 - 72011年-

Determination of leg stiff ness during hopping is frequency-dependent

Hobara H., Inoue K., Omura K., Muraoka T., Kanosue K.

European Journal of Applied Physiology111p.2195 - 22022011年-

Acute effects of static stretching on leg-spring nehavior during hopping

Hobara H., Inoue K., Kato E., Kanosue, K.

European Journal of Applied Physiology111p.2115 - 21212011年-



東京体育学研究2p.41 - 442010年-



東京体育学研究2p.29 - 332010年-



日本機械学会シンポジウム講演論文集10-53p.56 - 602010年-



日本機械学会シンポジウム講演論文集10-53p.36 - 392010年-



スポーツパフォーマンス研究2p.73 - 100

Concepts to utilize in describing thermoregulation and neurophysiological devidence for how the system works

K. Kanosue, L. I. Crawshow, K. Nagashima, and T. Yoda

European Journal of Applied Physiology109p.5 - 112010年-

Leg stiffness adjustment for a range of hopping frequencies in human

H. Hobara, K. Inoue, T. Muraoka, S. Iso, K. Kanosue

Journal of Biomechanics43(3)p.506 - 112010年-



スポーツ科学研究6p.119 - 1302009年-



日本機械学会シンポジウム講演論文集9-45p.51 - 552009年-

Exexution-dependent modulation of corticospinal excitability during motor imagery

M. Sakamoto, T. Muraoka, N. Mizuguchi, and K. Kanosue

Exp. Brain Res.199(1)p.17 - 252009年-

Combining observation and imagery of an action enhances human corticospinal excitability

M. Sakamoto, T. Muraoka, N. Mizuguchi, and K. Kanosue

Neuroscience Research65p.23 - 272009年-

Influence of touching an object on corticospinal excitability during motor imagery.

N. Mizuguchi, M. Sakamoto, T. Muraoka, and K. Kanosue

Experimental Brain Research196(4)p.529 - 352009年-

M. Sakamoto, T. Muraoka, N. Mizuguchi, and K. Kanosue

M. Sakamoto, T. Muraoka, N. Mizuguchi, and K. Kanosue

Neuroscience Research65p.23 - 272009年-

Knee stiffness is a major determinant of leg stiffness during maximal hopping.

Hobara H, Muraoka T, Omuro K, Gomi K, Sakamoto M, Inoue K, Kanosue K

Journal of Biomechanics42p.1768 - 712009年-

Continuous change in spring-mass characteristics during a 400-m sprint.

H. Hobara, K. Inoue, K. Gomi, M. Sakamoto, T Muraoka, S. Iso, K. Kanosue

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport13p.256 - 2612009年-

Differences in lower extremity stiffness between endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects.

H. Hobara, K. Kimura, K. Omuro, K. Gomi, T. Muraoka, M. Sakamoto, K. Kanosue

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport13p.106 - 1112009年-

Effects of alcohol on autonomic responses and thermal sensation during cold exposure in humans.

T. Yoda, L.I.. Crawshaw, K. Saito, M. Nakamura, K. Nagashima, K. Kanosue

Alcohol42p.207 - 2122008年-

Effects of muscle cooling on the stiffness of the human gastrocnemius muscle in vivo.

T. Muraoka, K. Omuro, T. Wakahara, T. Muramatsu, H. Kanehisa, T. Fukunaga, and K. Kanosue

Cells Tissues Organs187p.152 - 1602008年-

The regional differences in temperature sensation and thermal comfort/discomfort in humans.

M. Nakamura, T. Yoda, S. Yasuhara, Y. Saito, M. Kasuga, K. Nagashima, L.I.. Crawshaw, and K. Kanosue

J. Appl. Physiol.,105p.1897 - 19062008年-

一人のプロ野球投手が投げる8 種類の投球のボール回転.

永見 智行,彼末 一之,諸星 潤,大室 康平,茶川 剛史,勝亦 陽一,氏原 洋輔,子安 大士,前川 仁,小宮山 悟

日本機械学会シンポジウム講演論文集08-23p.108 - 1112008年-


氏原洋輔, 子安大士, 前川仁,永見智行, 大室康平, 彼末一之

日本機械学会シンポジウム講演論文集08-23p.78 - 822008年-

Determinants of difference in leg stiffness between endurance- and power-trained athletes.

H. Hobara, K. Kimura, K. Omuro, K. Gomi, T. Muraoka, S. Iso, and K. Kanosue

J. Biomechanics41p.506 - 5142007年-

Stiffness regulation depending on the visual condition during bouncing gait.

H. Hobara, K. Inoue, T. Muraoka, and K. Kanosue

Neurosci. Lett.418p.55 - 592007年-

The median preoptic nucleus is involved in the activation of heat-escape/cold-seeking behaviour during systemic salt loading in rats.

Konishi, M., K. Kanosue, and K. Nagashima

Am. J. Physiol.292p.R150 - R1592007年-


五味宏生、土江寛裕、木村孝三、小林 海、保原 浩明、村岡哲郎,礒 繁雄、川上泰雄、福永哲夫、彼末一之

スポーツ科学研究4p.9 - 162007年-


小関泰広,狩野宗徳,子安大士,前川 仁,永見智行,茶川剛士,大室康平,彼末一之

日本機械学会シンポジウム講演論文集07-24p.91 - 962007年-

A new system for the analysis of thermal judgments: multi-point measurement of skin temperatures, temperature related sensations, and their joint visualization.

M. Nakamura, H. Esaki, T. Yoda, S. Yasuhara, A. Kobayashi, A. Konishi, N. Osawa, K. Nagashima, L. I.. Crawshaw, K. Kanosue

J. Physiol. Sci.56p.459 - 4642006年-

Effects of warming the lower back with a heat and steam generating sheet on thermoregularoty responses and sensation.

Oda, H., M. Igaki, T. Ugajin, A. Suzuki, S. Tsuchiya, K. Nagashima, S. Iso, and K. Kanosue

Jpn. J. Biometeor.43(43)p.502006年-

Reflex activation of rat fusimotor neurons by body surface cooling, and its dependence on the medullary raphé.

M. Tanaka, N..C. Owens, K. Nagashima, K. Kanosue, and R.M. McAllen

J. Physiol.572p.569 - 5832006年-



スポーツ科学研究3p.48 - 602006年-

Brain activation by thermal stimulation in humans studied with fMRI.

Yagishita, T., Sadato, N., Okada, T., Taniguchi, A., Konishi, M., Nagashima, K., Yonekura, Y. and Kanosue, K.

In Environmental Ergonomicsp.17 - 202005年-

Effects of Alcohol on Thermoregulation during Mild Heat Exposure in Humans.

Yoda, T., Crawshaw, L.I., Nakamura, M., Saito, K., Konishi, A., Nagashima, K., Uchida, S., and Kanosue, K.

Alcohol36p.195 - 2002005年-

Fos activation in hypothalamic neurons during cold or warm exposure: Projections to periaqueductal gray matter.

Yoshida, K., M. Konishi, K. Nagashima, C. B. Saper and K. Kanosue

Neuroscience133p.1039 - 10462005年-

Influence of long-term Kendo training on the geometric and mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon.

Muraoka, T., Muramatsu, T., Kanosue, K., Fukunaga, T., and Kanehisa, H.

Int. J. Sport Health Sci.3p.303 - 3092005年-

The involvement of Cry1 and Cry2 genes in the regulation of the circadian body temperature rhythm in mice.

Nagashima, K., K. Matsue, M. Konishi, C. Iidaka, K. Miyazaki, N. Ishida, K. Kanosue

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol.288(1)p.329 - 3352005年-

野球のバットスイングの解析 — 速さか安定性か


日本機械学会シンポジウム講演論文集04−26p.108 - 1122005年-

Brain regions expressing Fos by thermoregulatory behavior in rats.

M. Maruyama, M. Nishi, Y. Takashige, K. Nagashima, T. Kiyohara, and K. Kanosue

American Journal of Physiology (Reg. Integ. and comp. Physiol.)285p.1116 - 11232003年-

Effects of fasting on thermoregulatory processes and their daily oscillations in rats.

K. Nagashima, S. Nakai, K. Matsue, M. Tanaka, and K. Kanosue

American Journal of Physiology (Reg. Integ. and comp. Physiol 284p.1486 - 14932003年-

Inhibitory projection from the preoptic area to the medullary raphé for the control of thremoregulatory non-shivering thermogenesis in rats.

A. Taniguchi, X.-M. Chen, K. Nagashima, M. Tanaka, and K. Kanosue

Brain Research966p.103 - 1092003年-

Neurones of the rat preoptic area and the raphe pallidus nucleus innervating the brown adipose tissue express the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3.

K. Yoshida, T. Huebschle, R. Gerstberger, K. Matsumura, K. Kanosue et al

Eur. J. Neurosci.18p.1848 - 18602003年-

Systemic salt loading suppresses heat production and thermoregulatory behaviour in rats during cold exposure

M. Konishi, K. Nagashima, K. Asano and K. Kanosue

J. Physiol.551p.713 - 7202003年-

Brain activation by whole body cooling studied with functional magnetic resonace imaging.

Kanosue, K., N. Sadato, T. Okada, T. Yoda, S. Nakai, K. Yoshida, T. Hosono, K. Nagashima, T. Yagishita, O. Inoue, K. Kobayashi, Y. Yonekura

Neurosci. Lett.329(2)p.157 - 1602002年-

Fos Expression induced by warming the preoptic area in rats.

K. Yoshida, M. Maruyama, T. Hosono, K. Nagashima, Y. Fukuda, R. Gerstberger, and K. Kanosue

Brain Research 933p.109 - 1172002年-

Involvement of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in body temperature modulation by food deprivation in rats.

Liu, S. , X.-M. Chen, T. Yoda,. K. Nagashima Y. Fukuda, and K. Kanosue

Brain Research929(1)p.26 - 362002年-

Role of the medullary raphe in thermoregulatory vasomotor control in rats.

M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, R. McAllen and K. Kanosue

J. Physiol.540p.657 - 6642002年-

Systemic salt loading activates heat-escape/cold-seeking behavior via the central V1 and AT1 receptors in rats.

Journal of Physiology5452002年-

Systemic salt loading activates heat-escape/cold-seeking behavior via the central V1 and AT1 receptors in rats.

M. Konishi, K. Nagashima and K. Kanosue

J. Physiol.545p.289 - 2962002年-

The caudal periaqueductal gray participates in the acitvation of brown adipose tissue in rats.

Chen, X.-M., M. Nishi, K. Nagashima, M. Shibata, K. Kanosue

Neuroscience Letters331p.17 - 202002年-

Thermal regulation and comfort during a mild-cold exposure in Japanese young women complaining unsual coldness.

K. Nagashima, T. Yoda, T. Yagishita, M. Ogawa, A. Taniguchi, T. Hosono, and K. Kanosue

J. Appl. Physiol. 92(3)92(3)p.1029 - 10352002年-

Thermoregulatory control of sympathetic fibers supplying the rat’s tail.

N.C. Owens, Y. Ootsuka, K. Kanosue and R.M. McAllen

Journal of Physiology 543p.849 - 8582002年-


彼末一之、永島 計、谷口あき、小西正博

繊維製品消費科学p.159 - 1642002年-

Effects of estrogen on thermoregulatory tail vasomotion and heat escape behavior in freely moving female rats.

Hosono, T., X.-M. Chen, A. Miyatsuji, T. Yoda, K. Yoshida, M. Yanase-Fujiwara, and K. Kanosue

Am. J. Physiol. (Reg. Integ. Comp. Physiol.)280p.1341 - 13472001年-

Glossary terms for thermal physiology (3rd Ed.)

As a member of the Commission for Thermal Physiology of the International Union of Physiological Sciences

The Japanese Journal of Physiology(51)2001年-

Hypothalamic region facilitating shivering in rats.

M. Tanaka, M. Tonouchi,. T. Hosono, K. Nagashima, M. Yanase-Fujiwara, and K. Kanosue

Jpn. J. Physiol. 51(5).p.625 - 6292001年-

Increased heat-escape/cold-seeking behavior following hypertonic saline injection in rats.

Nagashima,K., Nakai, S., Konishi, M., Liu, S. Kanosue, K

Am. J. Physiol. 280(Reg. Integ. Comp. Physiol.)280p.1031 - 10362001年-

The central organization of the thermoregulatory system.

Kanosue, K., K. Yoshida, M. Maruyama and K. Nagashima

In Thermotherapy: Principles and Practice (Eds. M. Kosaka and E. Simon)Springer, Tokyo,p.2 - 112001年-


彼末一之、永島 計、吉田恭子、田中睦美、谷口あき、細野剛良

Clinical Neuroscience 19p.47 - 492001年-

Autonomic and behavioral thermoregulation in starved rats.

Sakurada, S., O. Shido, N. Sugimoto, T. Yoda, K. Kanosue

J. Physiol526p.417 - 4252000年-

Effects of food deprivation on daily changes in body temperature and behavioral thermoregulation in rats.

Yoda, T., L. I. Crawshaw, K. Yoshida, T. Hosono, S. Liu, O. Shido, S. Sakurada, Y. Fukuda, and K. Kanosue

Am. J. Physiol. (Reg. Integ. Comp. Physiol.)278p.134 - 1392000年-

Neuronal organizations for thermoregulation.

Nagashima, K., S. Nakai, M. Tanaka, and K. Kanosue

Aut. Neurosci.(85)p.18 - 252000年-


彼末一之、永島 計、八木下知子、谷口あき、細野剛良

ジョイントシンポジウム 生活の場における温度・湿度と人間 講演論文集p.33 - 362000年-




Difference in Activity in the Supplementary Motor Area Depending on Limb Combination of Hand Foot Coordinated Movements

Nakagawa, Kento;Kawashima, Saeko;Mizuguchi, Nobuaki;Kanosue, Kazuyuki





Effect of muscle relaxation in the foot on simultaneous muscle contraction in the contralateral hand

Kato, Kouki;Kanosue, Kazuyuki

NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS633p.252 - 2562016年-2016年




Task-dependent engagements of the primary visual cortex during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery

Mizuguchi, Nobuaki;Nakamura, Maiko;Kanosue, Kazuyuki

NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS636p.108 - 1122017年-2017年





信岡沙希重;礒 繁雄;五味宏生;彼末一之

スポーツパフォーマンス研究2p.73 - 992010年-2010年


Cut-Off Man Performance Using a Real-time Bird Eye View Feedback System from a Drone

Miura Satoshi;Hirooka Kazumasa;Matsumoto Yuya;Kobayashi Yo;Fujimoto Hiroshi;Kanosue Kazuyuki;Fujie Masakatsu G.

The ... international conference on advanced mechatronics : toward evolutionary fusion of IT and mechatronics : ICAM : abstracts2015(6)p.9 - 102015年12月-2015年12月 




概要:This paper presents a novel sports training system. We developed a visual real-time feedback system that directly transmits a bird's eye view from a drone camera to a player's eyes. Individual physical ability, experience and intuition is important; however, in team sports such as baseball, football and volleyball, players need to perform spatial cognition such that they immediately understand where they, their teammates and their opponents are on the field as if they could see it from a bird's eye view. The objective is to validate the feasibility of the bird's eye view feedback system. In an experiment, nine participants moved and stood between two experimenters as a cut-off man with or without the system. Using the system produced significantly less error than with no system (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this bird's eye view feedback system can improve human spatial cognition.


信岡 沙希重;樋口 貴俊;中田 大貴;小川 哲也;加藤 孝基;中川 剣人;土江 寛裕;礒 繁雄;彼末 一之

体育学研究60(2)p.497 - 5102015年-2015年




概要:  The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between maximal running speed, step frequency, step frequency index, step length, step length index, foot contact time, and aerial time during sprinting in elementary school children. The participants were 335 girls and 352 boys (age: 6 to 12 years) who ran a 50-m sprint race as part of their school fitness test in 2013. Their maximal running speed, step frequency, and step length were calculated from images captured by video cameras (60 frames/second) located at the sides of the lanes. Contact time and aerial time over the distance from 20 m to 30 m were calculated from images captured by high-speed video cameras (300 frames/second) located at the side of the 25-m mark for the lanes. Two-way ANOVA with the Games-Howell procedure was used to test differences among all grades. Two-way ANCOVA was used to test interaction and the main effect of gender and grade on maximal running speed. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) and partial correlation coefficient (pr) were calculated to analyze the relationship between maximal running speed, step frequency, stride length, foot contact time, and aerial time. Step length (which was strongly correlated with maximal running speed) showed a strong partial correlation (controlled for age) with maximal running speed. Therefore, it is suggested that step length contributes to not only the increase in running speed with growth, but also individual differences in running speed among the children at the same age. There were slight tendencies for step frequency and foot contact time to increase with growth. However, these factors showed a significant partial correlation (controlled for age) with running speed. Therefore, it was suggested that these factors contribute to individual differences in running speed. The absence of a negative impact of a shorter foot contact time on stride length suggests that the running performance of school children could be improved by decreasing their foot contact time. In order to establish effective methods for augmenting the development of running ability in children, it will be necessary to consider foot contact time and aerial time in addition to step frequency and step length.

Anteroposterior ground reaction force as an indicator of gait alteration during treadmill walking after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Hoshiba Takuma;Nakata Hiroki;Saho Yasuaki;Kanosue Kazuyuki;Fukubayashi Toru

The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine5(1)p.95 - 1032016年-2016年




概要:We investigated the weight transferring aspect of gait pattern during treadmill walking and muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors following unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. At 6 and 12 postoperative months, 11 patients (six men, five women) walked on a split-belt treadmill with two embedded force plates at their preferred speeds, 20% slower and 20% faster. Seventeen healthy control subjects (nine men, eight women) were also evaluated. Peak values of three components of ground reaction force (vertical, anteroposterior, and mediolateral) were measured bilaterally, and their variabilities were analyzed by coefficients of variation (CVs). The CVs for the anteroposterior forces differed between the reconstructed and contralateral limbs at 6 postoperative months, and this difference disappeared at 12 months. This was not matched by the time course change of quadriceps strength since quadriceps weakness in the reconstructed limb persisted up to 12 months postoperative. These findings suggest that gait alteration in anteroposterior forces may not be caused by quadriceps weakness alone, and the reconstructed and contralateral limbs may compensate for gait execution over the first year following ACL reconstruction surgery.

04生−25−ポ−02 筋感覚的運動イメージと視覚的運動イメージ中の非対称的な脳活動変化

水口 暢章;彼末 一之

日本体育学会大会予稿集67(0)p.159_1 - 159_12016年-2016年





04生−26−口−29 走動作の変化がエネルギー代謝に与える影響

後藤 悠太;彼末 一之

日本体育学会大会予稿集67(0)p.157_2 - 157_22016年-2016年




 人の自由走行時のステップ長とケイデンスは代謝が最小になるものであると考えられている(Cavanagh et al. 1992)。それらの研究は長距離選手が対象である。長距離選手においては、効率的な動作を獲得した結果、代謝が少ない可能性があり、一般人でも同様かは不明である。そこで、走動作の変化が代謝に及ぼす影響を、ケイデンスを変化させた際の長距離選手と一般人の代謝を比較することで検討した。対象は長距離選手男性10名と、数分間継続して走行できる体力を有する一般男性10名である。測定は1日目にトレッドミルを用いて運動負荷試験を行い、60% HRreserveになる運動強度を決定した。2日目の測定ではトレッドミルの自由走行に加え、自由走行時のケイデンスから± 10%増減させたケイデンスをメトロノームで指示して走行させた。解析の結果、一般人では自由走行時に最も少ない代謝を示した。長距離選手ではケイデンス減少試行において代謝がより高くなる傾向が見られた。以上の事から一般人においても自分が身に付けている走動作では、自由なケイデンスが最も代謝が低くなると考えられる。

Interlimb coordination from a psychological perspective

Muraoka Tetsuro;Nakagawa Kento;Kato Kouki;Qi Weihuang;Kanosue Kazuyuki

The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine5(5)p.349 - 3592016年-2016年





During coordination of the movement of two limbs, the movements often interfere with each other, i.e., interlimb coordination is constrained. Many movement-related parameters such as movement direction, movement frequency, the coupling of limbs, neural network among limbs, and muscle homology are considered constraints of interlimb coordination, and they are roughly consolidated into two constraints, a neuromuscular constraint, and a perceptual-cognitive constraint. Interlimb coordination is considered to be governed by a coalition of neuromuscular and perceptual-cognitive constraints. On the other hand, spontaneous interlimb coordination is considered purely perceptual in nature. In this review, we focused on an influential study on interlimb coordination published in Nature by Mechsner et al. (2001), which supported the latter psychological approach. Thorough verification of the paper with reference to related studies revealed that no studies have yet proposed decisive contrary evidence against the psychological approach. Rather, investigation of interlimb coordination with perceptual-cognitive perspective has uncovered new findings. As a next psychological approach, the proposal of a unified and predictive explanation for movements is required. In addition, neural mechanisms that connect perceptual-cognitive representation to an appropriate motor command, if any, should be addressed.


永見 智行;木村 康宏;彼末 一之;矢内 利政

体育学研究61(2)p.589 - 6052016年-2016年




概要: In this study, we analyzed the kinematic characteristics of various types of baseball pitches by elite baseball pitchers, and tested a null hypothesis that “no type of pitch has the same kinematic characteristics as another.”
 A high-speed video camera was used to record the initial trajectory of the pitched ball thrown by 84 skilled baseball pitchers. Each pitcher was asked to throw all the different types of pitch he would use in competition and practice, and to self-declare the type of pitch used for each throw. The kinematic characteristics of each pitched ball were analyzed as ball speed, the direction of the spin axis, and the spin rate. A custom-made device was used to analyze the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate, and the ball speed was measured with a radar gun. One-way ANOVA with the Games-Howell post hoc test was used to test the hypothesis.
 The total of 364 pitches were categorized into 11 self-declared pitch types. Four of 10 pitch types thrown by more than one pitcher - the four-seam fastball, slider, curveball and cutter - had unique kinematic characteristic distinct from all of the other pitch types. No significant differences were found in any of the kinematic parameters between 1) changeup and sinker, 2) forkball and split-fingered fastball, and 3) two-seam fastball and shoot ball. Therefore, the hypothesis was retained for these 3 pairs of pitch types: although they were kinematically similar, the pitchers categorized them as different types.
 When the breaking ball was compared with the four-seam fastball, they were classifiable into 3 types: 1) pitches with a slower ball speed and lower spin rate with a different direction of spin axis (changeup, sinker, forkball and split-fingered fastball), 2) pitches with a slower ball speed, different direction of the spin axis and a spin rate comparable to the four-seam fastball (slider, curveball and cutter), and 3) pitches with a comparable ball speed, similar spin axis direction, and lower spin rate (two-seam fastball and shoot ball). These data revealed that the kinematic characteristics of some pitch types are quite different from those described in baseball coaching handbooks.


水口 暢章;彼末 一之

計測と制御56(8)p.568 - 5722017年-2017年


The effect of fastball backspin rate on baseball hitting accuracy.

Higuchi Takatoshi;Morohoshi Jun;Nagami Tomoyuki;Nakata Hiroki;Kanosue Kazuyuki

The effect of fastball backspin rate on baseball hitting accuracy.29(3)2013年-2013年



概要::The effectiveness of fastballs of equivalent speed can differ; for example, one element of this difference could be due to the effect of rate and orientation of ball spin on launched ball trajectory. In the present experiment, baseball batters' accuracy in hitting fastballs with different backspin rates at a constant ball velocity of 36 m/s was examined. Thirteen skilled baseball players (professionals, semiprofessionals, and college varsity players) participated in the study. The movements of bat and ball were recorded using two synchronized high-speed video cameras. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was calculated and used to analyze the relationship between ball backspin rate and the vertical distance between ball center and sweet spot at the moment of ball-bat impact. Ball backspin rate was positively correlated with increases in the distance from the optimal contact point of the swung bat (sweet spot) to the actual point of contact (r = .38, P < .001). Batters were most effective at the usual backspin rate for the ball velocity used. The decrease in accuracy of the batter's swing that was observed when the fastball's backspin deviated from the usual rate likely occurred because experienced batters predict ball trajectory from perceived ball speed.

Estimation of the core temperature control during ambient temperature changes and the influence of circadian rhythm and metabolic conditions in mice

Tokizawa, Ken; Tokizawa, Ken; Tokizawa, Ken; Yoda, Tamae; Uchida, Yuki; Uchida, Yuki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki; Nagashima, Kei; Nagashima, Kei

Journal of Thermal Biology51p.47 - 542015年07月-2015年07月 




概要:© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. It has been speculated that the control of core temperature is modulated by physiological demands. We could not prove the modulation because we did not have a good method to evaluate the control. In the present study, the control of core temperature in mice was assessed by exposing them to various ambient temperatures (T a ), and the influence of circadian rhythm and feeding condition was evaluated. Male ICR mice (n=20) were placed in a box where T a was increased or decreased from 27°C to 40°C or to -4°C (0.15°C/min) at 0800 and 2000 (daytime and nighttime, respectively). Intra-abdominal temperature (T core ) was monitored by telemetry. The relationship between T core and T a was assessed. The range of T a where T core was relatively stable (range of normothermia, RNT) and T core corresponding to the RNT median (regulated T core ) were estimated by model analysis. In fed mice, the regression slope within the RNT was smaller in the nighttime than in the daytime (0.02 and 0.06, respectively), and the regulated T core was higher in the nighttime than in the daytime (37.5°C and 36.0°C, respectively). In the fasted mice, the slope remained unchanged, and the regulated T core decreased in the nighttime (0.05 and 35.9°C, respectively), while the slopes in the daytime became greater (0.13). Without the estimating individual thermoregulatory response such as metabolic heat production and skin vasodilation, the analysis of the T a -T core relationship could describe the character of the core temperature control. The present results show that the character of the system changes depending on time of day and feeding conditions.

Corticospinal excitability modulation in resting digit muscles during cyclical movement of the digits of the ipsilateral limb

Muraoka, Tetsuro; Sakamoto, Masanori; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakagawa, Kento; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience9(NOVEMBER)2015年11月-2015年11月 




概要:© 2015 Muraoka, Sakamoto, Mizuguchi, Nakagawa and Kanosue.We investigated how corticospinal excitability of the resting digit muscles was modulated by the digit movement in the ipsilateral limb. Subjects performed cyclical extension- flexion movements of either the right toes or fingers. To determine whether corticospinal excitability of the resting digit muscles was modulated on the basis of movement direction or action coupling between ipsilateral digits, the right forearm was maintained in either the pronated or supinated position. During the movement, the motor evoked potential (MEP) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was measured from either the resting right finger extensor and flexor, or toe extensor and flexor. For both finger and toe muscles, independent of forearm position, MEP amplitude of the flexor was greater during ipsilateral digit flexion as compared to extension, and MEP amplitude of the extensor was greater during ipsilateral digit extension as compared to flexion. An exception was that MEP amplitude of the toe flexor with the supinated forearm did not differ between during finger extension and flexion. These findings suggest that digit movement modulates corticospinal excitability of the digits of the ipsilateral limb such that the same action is preferred. Our results provide evidence for a better understanding of neural interactions between ipsilateral limbs, and may thus contribute to neurorehabilitation after a stroke or incomplete spinal cord injury.

Motor imagery beyond the motor repertoire: Activity in the primary visual cortex during kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole body movements

Mizuguchi, N.; Nakata, H.; Nakata, H.; Kanosue, K.

Neuroscience315p.104 - 1132016年02月-2016年02月 




概要:© 2015 The Authors.To elucidate the neural substrate associated with capabilities for kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements, we measured brain activity during a trial involving both kinesthetic motor imagery and action observation as well as during a trial with action observation alone. Brain activity was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen participants imagined three types of whole-body movements with the horizontal bar: the giant swing, kip, and chin-up during action observation. No participant had previously tried to perform the giant swing. The vividness of kinesthetic motor imagery as assessed by questionnaire was highest for the chin-up, less for the kip and lowest for the giant swing. Activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic motor imagery with action observation minus that during action observation alone was significantly greater in the giant swing condition than in the chin-up condition within participants. Across participants, V1 activity of kinesthetic motor imagery of the kip during action observation minus that during action observation alone was negatively correlated with vividness of the kip imagery. These results suggest that activity in V1 is dependent upon the capability of kinesthetic motor imagery for difficult whole-body movements. Since V1 activity is likely related to the creation of a visual image, we speculate that visual motor imagery is recruited unintentionally for the less vivid kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements.

Contribution of visual information about ball trajectory to baseball hitting accuracy

Higuchi, Takatoshi; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

PLoS ONE11(2)2016年02月-2016年02月 



概要:© 2016 Higuchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-To-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m s-1 and 40.3 m s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-To-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-To-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay.

Relation between lift force and ball spin for different baseball pitches

Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nakata, Hiroki; Nakata, Hiroki; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Journal of Applied Biomechanics32(2)p.196 - 2042016年04月-2016年04月 




概要:© 2016 Human Kinetics, Inc. Although the lift force (F L ) on a spinning baseball has been analyzed in previous studies, no study has analyzed such forces over a wide variety of spins. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between F L and spin for different types of pitches thrown by collegiate pitchers. Four high-speed video cameras were used to record flight trajectory and spin for 7 types of pitches. A total of 75 pitches were analyzed. The linear kinematics of the ball was determined at 0.008-s intervals during the flight, and the resultant fluid force acting on the ball was calculated with an inverse dynamics approach. The initial angular velocity of the ball was determined using a custom-made apparatus. Equations were derived to estimate the F L using the effective spin parameter (ESp), which is a spin parameter calculated using a component of angular velocity of the ball with the exception of the gyro-component. The results indicate that F L could be accurately explained from ESp and also that seam orientation (4-seam or 2-seam) did not produce a uniform effect on estimating F L from ESp.

Neural basis for the relationship between frequency of going outdoors and depressive mood in older adults

Sakurai, Ryota; Sakurai, Ryota; Sakurai, Ryota; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Yasunaga, Masashi; Takeuchi, Rumi; Murayama, Yoh; Cuya, Kimi Estela Kobayashi; Kanosue, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Kenji

International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry32(6)p.589 - 5952017年06月-2017年06月 




概要:Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Objective: Low frequency of going outdoors (e.g. being homebound) is associated with depressive mood; however, the underlying neural mechanism of this association is unclear. We therefore investigated the neural substrate involved in the relationship between frequency of going outdoors and depressive mood using positron emission tomography (PET), focusing on the frontal lobe and the limbic system. Methods: One hundred fifty-eight community-dwelling older adults aged 65–85 years underwent PET with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose to evaluate regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose normalized in reference to cerebellar glucose metabolic value (normalized-rCMRglc) in six regions of interest. We also assessed depressive mood, frequency of going outdoors, and potential covariates. Depressive mood was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results: The proportion of participants who reported low frequency of going outdoors (LG, every 2–3 days or less) was 36.1%. The LG group showed significantly higher GDS scores than those who reported high (once a day or more) frequency of going outdoors. A multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for potential covariates showed higher GDS scores were associated with lower normalized-rCMRglc in the ventrolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices. Adjusting for frequency of going outdoors, the association between GDS score and normalized-rCMRglc in the orbitofrontal cortex was attenuated. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the orbitofrontal cortex may mediate the relationship between low frequency of going outdoors and depressive mood among community-dwelling older adults. These findings may help disentangle the role of going outdoors in regulating brain function to improve and/or maintain mental health among community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Effects of muscle relaxation on sustained contraction of ipsilateral remote muscle

Kato, Kouki; Kato, Kouki; Watanabe, Tasuku; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Physiological Reports3(11)2015年11月-2015年11月 



概要:© 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.The objective of this study was to clarify the temporal change of muscle activity during relaxation of ipsilateral remote muscles. While participants maintained a constant right wrist extensor isometric force, they dorsiflexed the ipsilateral ankle from resting position or relaxed from dorsiflexed position in response to an audio signal. The wrist extensor force magnitude increased in the 0–400 msec period after the onset of foot contraction compared to that of the resting condition (P < 0.05). On the other hand, wrist extensor force magnitude and electromyographic (EMG) activity decreased in the 0–400 msec period after the onset of ankle dorsiflexion compared to that of the resting condition (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that foot muscle relaxation induces temporal reduction in hand muscle EMG activity and force magnitude.

Muscle relaxation of the foot reduces corticospinal excitability of hand muscles and enhances intracortical inhibition

Kato, Kouki; Kato, Kouki; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakagawa, Kento; Nakagawa, Kento; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience10(MAY2016)2016年05月-2016年05月 



概要:© 2016 Kato, Muraoka, Mizuguchi, Nakagawa, Nakata and Kanosue.The object of this study was to clarify the effects of foot muscle relaxation on activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) of the hand area. Subjects were asked to volitionally relax the right foot from sustained contraction of either the dorsiflexor (tibialis anterior; TA relaxation) or plantarflexor (soleus; SOL relaxation) in response to an auditory stimulus. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand area of the left M1 at different time intervals before and after the onset of TA or SOL relaxation. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR). MEP amplitudes of ECR and FCR caused by single-pulse TMS temporarily decreased after TA and SOL relaxation onset, respectively, d as compared with those of the resting control. Furthermore, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of ECR evaluated with paired-pulse TMS temporarily increased after TA relaxation onset. Our findings indicate that muscle relaxation of the dorsiflexor reduced corticospinal excitability of the ipsilateral hand muscles. This is most likely caused by an increase in intracortical inhibition.

Neural correlates of older adults’ self-overestimation of stepping-over ability

Sakurai, Ryota; Sakurai, Ryota; Sakurai, Ryota; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Yasunaga, Masashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Yoh; Imanaka, Kuniyasu; Kanosue, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Kenji

Age38(4)p.351 - 3612016年08月-2016年08月 




概要:© 2016, American Aging Association.A growing body of literature indicates that cognitively intact older adults tend to overestimate their physical functioning (e.g., step-over ability), which may lead to fall risk. However, the neural correlates underlying this phenomenon are still unclear. We therefore investigated the neural basis of older adults’ self-overestimation of stepping-over ability. A total of 108 well-functioning community dwelling older adults (mean age = 73.9 years) performed step-over tests (SOT) in two ways: self-estimation of step-over ability and an actual step-over task. During the self-estimation task, participants observed a horizontal bar at a distance of 7 m and estimated the maximum height (EH) of successful SOT trials. The actual SOT was then performed to determine the actual maximum height (AH) of successful trials. Participants also underwent positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose at rest to assess cerebral neural activity. The SOT showed that 22.2 % of participants overestimated their step-over ability. A regression analysis adjusted for potential covariates showed that increased self-estimation error (difference between EH and AH) was correlated with lower glucose metabolism in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and left frontal pole. Only the significant correlation between self-estimation error and OFC activity persisted after correcting for multiple comparisons. For well-functioning healthy older adults, overlooking one’s own functional decline may be influenced by reduced metabolic activity in the anterior prefrontal cortex, particularly in the OFC. Our findings also suggest that functional decline in the OFC prevents older adults from updating the qualitative/quantitative values of their impaired physical abilities.

The right temporoparietal junction encodes efforts of others during action observation

Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakata, Hiroki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Scientific Reports62016年07月-2016年07月 



概要:Smooth social interactions require a deep understanding of others' intentions and feelings. In the present study, to investigate brain regions that respond to inference of others' effort level, we recorded brain activity during action observation of different effort levels using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a dumbbell curl movement to depict a movement requiring effort. To dissociate the factors of effort level of the actor and weight of the dumbbell, we used four combinations of dumbbell weight and actor physique: a thin actor or a built actor lifting a heavy or light dumbbell. During observation of dumbbell curls, the bilateral front-parietal action observation network (AON) was activated. This included the premotor cortices, parietal cortices, visual areas 5/superior temporal cortices (STS), amygdalae, hippocampi, right dorsolateral and ventrolateral frontal cortices. When we evaluated brain regions associated with the actor's effort level, activity in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and STS was observed. However, activity in the front-parietal AON was independent of the actor's effort during action observation. This finding suggests that the right TPJ and STS play an important role in the inference of others' effort levels during the observation of others' movements.

Effect of muscle relaxation in the foot on simultaneous muscle contraction in the contralateral hand

Kato, Kouki; Kato, Kouki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Neuroscience Letters633p.252 - 2562016年10月-2016年10月 




概要:© 2016We investigated the effects of foot muscle relaxation and contraction on muscle activities in the hand on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The subjects sat in an armchair with hands in the pronated position. They were able to freely move their right/left hand and foot. They performed three tasks for both ipsilateral (right hand and right foot) and contralateral limb coordination (left hand and right foot for a total of six tasks). These tasks involved: (1) wrist extension from a flexed (resting) position, (2) wrist extension with simultaneous ankle dorsiflexion from a plantarflexed (resting) position, and (3) wrist extension with simultaneous ankle relaxation from a dorsiflexed position. The subjects performed each task as fast as possible after hearing the start signal. Reaction time for the wrist extensor contraction (i.e. the degree to which it preceded the motor reaction time), as observed in electromyography (EMG), became longer when it was concurrently done with relaxation of the ankle dorsiflexor. Also, the magnitude of EMG activity became smaller, as compared with activity when wrist extensor contraction was done alone or with contraction of the ankle dorsiflexor. These effects were observed not only for the ipsilateral hand, but also for the contralateral hand. Our findings suggest that muscle relaxation in one limb interferes with muscle contraction in both the ipsilateral and contralateral limbs.

Difference in activity in the supplementary motor area depending on limb combination of hand–foot coordinated movements

Nakagawa, Kento; Nakagawa, Kento; Nakagawa, Kento; Kawashima, Saeko; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience10(OCT2016)2016年10月-2016年10月 



概要:© 2016 Nakagawa, Kawashima, Mizuguchi and Kanosue.Periodic interlimb coordination shows lower performance when the ipsilateral hand and foot (e.g., right hand and right foot) are simultaneously moved than when the contralateral hand and foot (e.g., right hand and left foot) are simultaneously moved. The present study aimed to investigate how brain activity that is related to the dependence of hand–foot coordination on limb combination, using functional magnetic imaging. Twenty-one right-handed subjects performed periodic coordinated movements of the ipsilateral or contralateral hand and foot in the same or opposite direction in the sagittal plane. Kinematic data showed that performance was lower for the ipsilateral hand–foot coordination than for the contralateral one. A comparison of brain activity between the same and opposite directions showed that there was a greater activation of supplementary motor area for ipsilateral hand–foot coordination as compared to that seen during contralateral hand–foot coordination. We speculate that this might reflect a difference in the degree of inhibition of the neural circuit that disrupts opposite directional movements between ipsilateral and contralateral hand–foot coordinated movements.

Task-dependent engagements of the primary visual cortex during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery

Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Maiko; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Neuroscience Letters636p.108 - 1122017年01月-2017年01月 




概要:© 2016 Elsevier Ireland LtdMotor imagery can be divided into kinesthetic and visual aspects. In the present study, we investigated excitability in the corticospinal tract and primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery. To accomplish this, we measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and probability of phosphene occurrence during the two types of motor imageries of finger tapping. The MEPs and phosphenes were induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex and V1, respectively. The amplitudes of MEPs and probability of phosphene occurrence during motor imagery were normalized based on the values obtained at rest. Corticospinal excitability increased during both kinesthetic and visual motor imagery, while excitability in V1 was increased only during visual motor imagery. These results imply that modulation of cortical excitability during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery is task dependent. The present finding aids in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motor imagery and provides useful information for the use of motor imagery in rehabilitation or motor imagery training.

Central neuronal motor behaviour in skilled and less skilled novices – Approaching sports-specific movement techniques

Vogt, Tobias; Kato, Kouki; Schneider, Stefan; Schneider, Stefan; Türk, Stefan; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Human Movement Science52p.151 - 1592017年04月-2017年04月 




概要:© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Research on motor behavioural processes preceding voluntary movements often refers to analysing the readiness potential (RP). For this, decades of studies used laboratory setups with controlled sports-related actions. Further, recent applied approaches focus on athlete-non-athlete comparisons, omitting possible effects of training history on RP. However, RP preceding real sport-specific movements in accordance to skill acquisition remains to be elucidated. Therefore, after familiarization 16 right-handed males with no experience in archery volunteered to perform repeated sports-specific movements, i.e. 40 arrow-releasing shots at 60 s rest on a 15 m distant standard target. Continuous, synchronised EEG and right limb EMG recordings during arrow-releasing served to detect movement onsets for RP analyses over distinct cortical motor areas. Based on attained scores on target, archery novices were, a posteriori, subdivided into a skilled and less skilled group. EMG results for mean values revealed no significant changes (all p  >  0.05), whereas RP amplitudes and onsets differed between groups but not between motor areas. Arrow-releasing preceded larger RP amplitudes (p  <  0.05) and later RP onsets (p  <  0.05) in skilled compared to less skilled novices. We suggest this to reflect attentional orienting and greater effort that accompanies central neuronal preparatory states of a sports-specific movement.

Unstable rocker shoes promote recovery from marathon-induced muscle damage in novice runners

Nakagawa, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Inami, T.; Yonezu, T.; Kenmotsu, Y.; Narita, T.; Kawakami, Y.; Kanosue, K.

Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports28(2)p.621 - 6292018年02月-2018年02月 




概要:© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd We recently reported that wearing unstable rocker shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology: MBT) may enhance recovery from marathon race-induced fatigue. However, this earlier study only utilized a questionnaire. In this study, we evaluated MBT utilizing objective physiological measures of recovery from marathon-induced muscle damages. Twenty-five university student novice runners were divided into two groups. After running a full marathon, one group wore MBT shoes (MBT group), and the control group (CON) wore ordinary shoes daily for 1 week following the race. We measured maximal isometric joint torque, muscle hardness (real time tissue elastography of the strain ratio) in the lower limb muscles before, immediately after, and 1, 3, and 8 days following the marathon. We calculated the magnitude of recovery by observing the difference in each value between the first measurement and the latter measurements. Results showed that isometric torques in knee flexion recovered at the first day after the race in the MBT group while it did not recover even at the eighth day in the CON group. Muscle hardness in the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis showed enhanced recovery in the MBT group in comparison with the CON group. Also for muscle hardness in the tibialis anterior and biceps femoris, the timing of recovery was delayed in the CON group. In conclusion, wearing MBT shoes enhanced recovery in lower leg and thigh muscles from muscle damage induced by marathon running.

Association between hypometabolism in the supplementary motor area and fear of falling in older adults

Sakurai, Ryota; Sakurai, Ryota; Sakurai, Ryota; Sakurai, Ryota; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Yasunaga, Masashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Ishii, Kenji

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience9(JUL)2017年07月-2017年07月 



概要:© 2017 Sakurai, Fujiwara, Yasunaga, Suzuki, Kanosue, Montero-Odasso and Ishii. Background: A better understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the development of fear of falling (FoF) in seniors may help to detect potential treatable factors and reduce future falls. We therefore investigate the neural correlates of FoF in older adults using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Methods: This cohort study included 117 community-dwelling older adults. At baseline, participants were assessed for FoF, psychiatric symptoms, walking speed, global cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism with FDG-PET. The incidence of FoF in the participants who did not report FoF (N-FoF) at baseline was again ascertained 2 years later. FDG uptake was compared between the FoF and non-FoF groups. Logistic regression analyses to examine the predictors of newly developed FoF (D-FoF) using normalized regional FDG uptake were then performed. Results: At baseline, 50.4% (n = 59) of participants had FoF. The FoF group had significantly decreased glucose metabolism in the left superior frontal gyrus (supplementary motor area, SMA; BA6) compared to the non-FoF group. After 2 years, 19 out of the 58 participants in the non-FoF group developed FoF. Logistic regression analysis revealed that decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the left SMA at the baseline was a significant predictor of the future development of FoF, independently of psychiatric symptoms and walking speed. Conclusion: In healthy older adults, hypometabolism in the left SMA, which is involved in motor planning and motor coordination, contributes to the development of FoF. Our result might help elucidate underlying mechanism of the association between deficits in motor control and FoF.

The Effect of Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on A Throwing Task Depends on Individual Level of Task Performance

Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Katayama, Takashi; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Neuroscience371p.119 - 1252018年02月-2018年02月 




概要:© 2017 IBRO The effect of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor performance remains controversial. Some studies suggest that the effect of tDCS depends upon task-difficulty and individual level of task performance. Here, we investigated whether the effect of cerebellar tDCS on the motor performance depends upon the individual's level of performance. Twenty-four naïve participants practiced dart throwing while receiving a 2-mA cerebellar tDCS for 20 min under three stimulus conditions (anodal-, cathodal-, and sham-tDCS) on separate days with a double-blind, counter-balanced cross-over design. Task performance was assessed by measuring the distance between the center of the bull's eye and the dart's position. Although task performance tended to improve throughout the practice under all stimulus conditions, improvement within a given day was not significant as compared to the first no-stimulus block. In addition, improvement did not differ among stimulation conditions. However, the magnitude of improvement was associated with an individual's level of task performance only under cathodal tDCS condition (p < 0.05). This resulted in a significant performance improvement only for the sub-group of participants with lower performance levels as compared to that with sham-tDCS (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the facilitation effect of cerebellar cathodal tDCS on motor skill learning of complex whole-body movements depends on the level of an individual's task performance. Thus, cerebellar tDCS would facilitate learning of a complex motor skill task only in a subset of individuals.

Motor imagery of voluntary muscle relaxation of the foot induces a temporal reduction of corticospinal excitability in the hand

Kato, Kouki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

Neuroscience Letters668p.67 - 722018年03月-2018年03月 




概要:© 2018 Elsevier B.V. The object of this study was to clarify how the motor imagery of foot muscle relaxation influences corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hand. Twelve participants volitionally relaxed their right foot from a dorsiflexed position (actual relaxation), or imaged the same movement (imagery relaxation) in response to an auditory cue. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex at different time intervals after an auditory cue. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR). MEP amplitudes of ECR and FCR caused by single-pulse TMS temporarily decreased during both actual relaxation and imagery relaxation as compared with those of the resting control. A correlation of MEP amplitude between actual relaxation and imagery relaxation was observed. Our findings indicate that motor imagery of muscle relaxation of the foot induced a reduction of corticospinal excitability in the ipsilateral hand muscles. This effect is likely produced via the same mechanism that functions during actual muscle relaxation.

Performance control in one consecutive motor task sequence – Approaching central neuronal motor behaviour preceding isometric contraction onsets and relaxation offsets at lower distinct torques

Vogt, Tobias; Kato, K.; Flüthmann, N.; Bloch, O.; Nakata, H.; Kanosue, K.

Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions18(1)p.1 - 82018年03月-2018年03月 




概要:© 2018, International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. All rights reserved. Objective: Motor-related cortical potentials (MRCP) often compared separated muscle activations; however, MRCP preceding combined contraction onsets and relaxation offsets of one consecutive motor task sequence remain to be elucidated. Methods: Twelve healthy males (27.92±4.33 years, 181.83±7.15 cm, 84.58±7.15 kg) performed 40 submaximal isometric right-limb wrist flexions (i.e. motor task sequences). Each motor task sequence combined timed contractions to and relaxations from distinct torque levels, i.e. 20% and 40% of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC). Synchronized continuous EEG (32 Ag/AgCl-electrodes mounted over motor-related areas) and EMG (i.e. flexor carpi radialis, FCR) recordings served to detect torque level-on/offsets for MRCP analyses. Results: Motor task sequences were accurately maintained with participants’ mean values of FCR muscle activity revealing no signs of fatigue (p > 0.05). Main findings (i.e. readiness potential) were larger amplitudes over frontal electrode sites (p < 0.05) preceding contractions compared to relaxations, whereas amplitudes were larger (i.e. peak) over centro-parietal electrode sites (p < 0.05) preceding 40% compared to 20% MVC. Conclusion: When performed in one consecutive motor task sequence, controlling the production as well as the releasing of force may require similar proprioceptive and visuo-motor processing preceding the same force level (i.e. 20% or 40%); however, this is irrespective of the muscle activation type (i.e. contraction or relaxation).








神経と筋,身体運動,「カラー図解よくわかる生理学の基礎 2章」



熱バランスと体温調節,「カラー図解よくわかる生理学の基礎 9章」



体温調節中枢からみた自律分散型調節システム 「体温─運動時の体温調節システムと修飾要因」(平田、井上、近藤編)

彼末 一之、永島 計、谷口 あき、小西 正博


体温・エネルギー代謝 スタンダード生理学 第12章(安藤、彼末、松川、二宮編)



電気回路の基礎 スタンダード生理学 付録(安藤、彼末、松川、二宮編)



運動をすると暑さ寒さに強くなるのか 運動と遺伝(大野、及川、石井編)






体温とその調節 標準生理学13章(本郷、広重監修)



脳と体温(暑熱・寒冷環境との戦い) ブレインサイエンスシリーズ23(大村、中川編)



A new system for the analysis of thermal judgments: multi-point measurement of skin temperatures, thermal sensations, thermal affect, and their joint visualization

Nakamura, M., H. Esaki, N. Osawa, A. Kobayashi, A. Konishi, S. Yasuhara, K. Nagashima, and K. Kanosue

Proceedings of ICHES 20052005年-

Physiological responses to warming the lumbar region with heat and steam generating sheets in human.

Oda, H., Igaki, M., Suzuki, A., Tsuchiya, S., Nagashima, Y., Yada, Y., and Kanosue, K.

Proceedings of ICHES 20052005年-































































































































































研究成果概要: 協調運動とは、多関節または多肢を時間的・空間的にある目的に従って制御することを要求される運動である。拍手や歩行、ドラム演奏など、我々の周囲には協調運動が多様に存在し、運動の難易度もまた様々である。本研究では、四肢による協調運動を... 協調運動とは、多関節または多肢を時間的・空間的にある目的に従って制御することを要求される運動である。拍手や歩行、ドラム演奏など、我々の周囲には協調運動が多様に存在し、運動の難易度もまた様々である。本研究では、四肢による協調運動を解析した。 被験者は、立津の実験と同じ健常な男性4名、女性4名の計8名である(年齢は20~53歳)。被験者は台上に仰臥位になり、ポテンショメーターにて回転角度を測定できるレバーに対して手と足を固定した。4種の四肢の運動パターンをタスクとして設定した。(a)jump:四肢全てを同時に同方向に動かす。(b)pace:左右の同側肢は同位相、上肢・下肢は逆位相に動かす。(c)bound:左右の同側肢は逆位相、上肢・下肢は同位相に動かす。(d)trot:同側肢も上肢・下肢も共に逆位相(対側肢が同位相)に動かす。同位相とは各肢を同時に同方向に、逆位相とは各肢を同時に逆方向に動かすことを意味する。被験者は1Hzの周期で8種のタスクを10秒間ずつ全て行った。さらに周期を段階的に速くして、8つのタスクを5段階の周期(1、1.6、2、2.5、3.3Hz)で行った。この時タスクの順番はランダムにした。被験者にはメトロノーム音に同期するように、さらに無理に力を入れる必要はないができる範囲で可能な限り手・足を屈曲・伸展するように指示した。 本研究ではあるタスクで四肢の運動パターンを構成する6種の組み合わせの相互相関値の絶対値が全て0.75以上の場合にそのタスクができたと設定した。すると、jump→pace→bound→trotの順でパフォーマンスが低下した。同側肢が同位相であるjumpやpaceより同側肢が逆位相であるboundやtrotでパフォーマンスが低いことは、二肢でも同側肢の逆位相で最もパフォーマンスが低いことと合致する。ヒトのパフォーマンスには方向性が強く影響するのである。


2005年度共同研究者:村岡 哲郎

研究成果概要:協調運動とは、多関節または多肢を時間的・空間的にある目的に従って制御することを要求される運動である.拍手や歩行、ドラム演奏など、我々の周囲には協調運動が多様に存在し、運動の難易度もまた様々である.本研究では、手関節および足関節の屈...協調運動とは、多関節または多肢を時間的・空間的にある目的に従って制御することを要求される運動である.拍手や歩行、ドラム演奏など、我々の周囲には協調運動が多様に存在し、運動の難易度もまた様々である.本研究では、手関節および足関節の屈曲・伸展という単純な運動に着目し、パフォーマンスを定量化することで運動の難易度を序列化することを試みた. 【方法】 被験者は健常な男性4名、女性4名の計8名である.台上に仰臥位になり、手関節・足関節の屈曲・伸展運動を、5段階のメトロノーム音 (1, 1.6, 2, 2.5, 3.3 Hz) に合わせて行った.関節回転角度はポテンショメータで計測した.タスクは6種類の二肢の組み合わせパターン (両手、両足、左手足、右手足、左手右足、右手左足) に対し、2種類の方向関連性パターン (in-phase:同位相/anti-phase:逆位相) を掛け合わせた12種類を用意した.同位相 (in-phase) とは、二肢を同時に同方向に動かすことを意味し、逆位相 (anti-phase) は同時に逆方向に動かすことを意味する.各タスクは10秒間維持され、またランダムな順番で行われた.ポテンショメータから得られた二肢の動きの変位を相互相関することで、パフォーマンスの評価の指標とした. 【結果】 タスクの種類によってパフォーマンスに難易差が現れた.1)homologous limbs (両手、両足) は、inhomologous limbs (手と足の組み合わせ) よりパフォーマンスを維持しやすい.2)同位相において、ipsilateral hand-foot (同側の手足の組み合わせ) とcontralateral hand-foot (対側の手足の組み合わせ) は、同じ位パフォーマンスを維持できる.3)逆位相において、同側の手足の組み合わせの方が、対側の手足の組み合わせよりパフォーマンスが困難である. 【結論】 同位相の運動より逆位相の運動の方でパフォーマンスが低いという結果から、運動の“方向性”がヒトのパフォーマンスに強く影響を与えることが考えられる.またそれは両手、両足といった相同性器官の組み合わせにおける運動よりも、手と足、特に同側の手と足を組み合わせた運動において顕著となって現われた.



研究成果概要: アルコールは非常に身近な嗜好物だが、多くの生理作用を持つ。体温への作用もその一つで、アルコールを摂取すると「体温が低下」することは知られている。急性アルコール中毒時には体温の急激な低下がおき、特に厳冬期にはそのために死に至る危険... アルコールは非常に身近な嗜好物だが、多くの生理作用を持つ。体温への作用もその一つで、アルコールを摂取すると「体温が低下」することは知られている。急性アルコール中毒時には体温の急激な低下がおき、特に厳冬期にはそのために死に至る危険性もある。しかし、アルコールの体温低下作用の正確な機序は明らかになっていない。一般にはアルコールの血管拡張作用によって、皮膚血管が拡張し熱放散が盛んになる結果、体温が低下すると考えられているが、我々の日常の経験ではアルコール摂取時には「暑く」なる。もしアルコールが末梢だけに作用して体温が下がり、体温調節中枢には変化がないなら、その体温低下を抑えるためにむしろ「寒く」感じるはずである。このことはアルコールが中枢に作用して体温の調節レベルを低下させることを示唆するものである。そこで本研究ではアルコールの暑熱下での自律性体温調節反応と温熱的感覚への作用を同時に検討した。 健康な成人男性8名が実験に参加した。暑熱環境下におけるアルコール摂取(15%、3cc/kg wt.)による体温調節反応を調べた。実験条件は①環境温33℃-アルコール摂取(alcohol)、②環境温33℃-水摂取(control)の2条件で、30分のbaseline dataの測定後、アルコールあるいは水を摂取し、以後90分、各測定を行い、この2条件の結果を比較検討した。深部体温を経口式の体温測定用テレメータシステムを用いて測定し、皮膚温を熱電対にて全身8箇所で測定した。熱放散反応の指標として、胸部皮膚血流量、胸部発汗量を測定した。主観的温度感覚(暑い-寒い)は10cmの直線スケール上に被験者自身が記入する方法を用いた。 深部体温はアルコール摂取後20分で、水を摂取した場合に比べ低下した(図1)。また、皮膚血流量はアルコール摂取後20分から、発汗量は10分から上昇し始めたが、水を摂取した場合には特に変化はみられなかった。このようにアルコールを摂取すると、自律性体温調節効果器の反応は体温を低下させるように働いている。一方、行動性体温調節を駆動させる要因となる主観的温度感覚はアルコールを摂取すると、摂取前よりも「暑い」側に移動した。以上のようにアルコール摂取は自律性・行動性体温調節どちらにも体温低下を誘発するように作用することが明らかになった。アルコール摂取による体温低下はアルコールの血管拡張作用がもたらす熱損失の増加による二次的なものではなく、アルコールの体温調節中枢への直接作用によって、すべての体温調節反応に影響する結果と考えられる。



研究成果概要:Understanding the leg and joint stiffness during human movement would provide important information that could be u...Understanding the leg and joint stiffness during human movement would provide important information that could be utilized for evaluating sports performance and for injury prevention. In the present study, we examined the determinants of the difference in the leg stiffness between the endurance-trained and power-trained athletes. Seven distance runners and seven power-trained athletes performed in-place hopping, matching metronome beats at 3.0 and 1.5 Hz. Leg and joint stiffness were calculated from kinetic and kinematics data. Electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorded from six leg muscles. At both hopping frequencies, the power-trained athletes demonstrated significantly higher leg stiffness than the distance runners. Hip, knee, and ankle joints were analyzed for stiffness. Ankle stiffness was significantly greater in the power-trained athletes than the distance runners at 3.0 Hz as was knee stiffness at 1.5 Hz. When significant difference in EMG activity existed between two groups, it was always greater in the distance runners than the power-trained athletes. These results suggest that 1) the difference in leg stiffness between endurance-trained and power-trained athletes is best attributed to increased joint stiffness, and 2) the difference in joint stiffness between the two groups may be attributed to a lack of similarity in the intrinsic stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex rather than in altered neural activity.





2008年度共同研究者:坂本 将基

研究成果概要:サルが餌を「掴む」という動作を行ったときに反応するニューロンが、自らが動作を行わなくとも他の個体が同じ動作を行うのを「見た」ときに反応が見られた(Rizzolatti,2004)。これをミラーニューロンと呼び、ヒトにおいて、サル同...サルが餌を「掴む」という動作を行ったときに反応するニューロンが、自らが動作を行わなくとも他の個体が同じ動作を行うのを「見た」ときに反応が見られた(Rizzolatti,2004)。これをミラーニューロンと呼び、ヒトにおいて、サル同様に運動前野を中心に反応が起こることから、ミラーニューロンシステムと呼ばれている。本研究では未経験者にとってイメージの困難であると考えられる宙返り動作と誰にでもできるジャンプ動作の映像を見たときに経験者と未経験者では脳のミラーニューロンシステムの活動がどのように異なるのかをTMSを用いて運動誘発電位(motor-evoked potential:MEP)により、検討することとした。被験者は健常な男女14人(20~23歳)であり、うち経験者群7名、未経験者郡7名で行った。被験者は椅子に座り、右腕を肘掛に乗せた状態で正面から撮影した立位姿勢(control)、宙返り動作(salto)、ジャンプ動作(jump)と、横から撮影したcontrol、salto、jumpの6つの映像を観察した。各課題観察中に、TMSにより刺激を行い、三角筋前部線維と三角筋中部線維からMEPを記録した。経験者と未経験者のsalto観察時におけるMEP振幅には、有意な差はなかった。課題間においてもcontrol観察時と比べsalto観察時やjump観察時に有意な差は見られなかった。しかし、全体として経験者はsalto観察時とjump観察時にMEPが増加する傾向が見られ、未経験者にはjump観察時にMEPが増加し、salto観察時にはMEPが減少する傾向が見られた。今後,被験者数を増やしていけば有意な差が現れる可能性も残っている。更に、正面からの動作を観察したときよりも横からの動作を観察したときの方がADとMD共に経験者に大きなMEPの増加傾向が見られたことから同じ動作であっても観察する方向によってミラーニューロンシステムの活性が違うことが示唆された。



研究成果概要:Sensations evoked by thermal stimulation (temperature-related sensations) can be divided into two categories, “temp...Sensations evoked by thermal stimulation (temperature-related sensations) can be divided into two categories, “temperature sensation” and “thermal comfort.” Although several studies have investigated regional differences in temperature sensation, less is known about the sensitivity differences in thermal comfort for the various body regions. In the present study, we examined regional differences in temperature-related sensations with special attention to thermal comfort. Healthy male subjects sitting in an environment of mild heat or cold were locally cooled or warmed with water-perfused stimulators. Areas stimulated were the face, chest, abdomen, and thigh. Temperature sensation and thermal comfort of the stimulated areas were reported by the subjects, as was whole body thermal comfort. During mild heat exposure, facial cooling was most comfortable and facial warming was most uncomfortable. On the other hand, during mild cold exposure, neither warming nor cooling of the face had a major effect. The chest and abdomen had characteristics opposite to those of the face. Local warming of the chest and abdomen did produce a strong comfort sensation during whole body cold exposure. The thermal comfort seen in this study suggests that if given the chance, humans would preferentially cool the head in the heat, and they would maintain the warmth of the trunk areas in the cold. The qualitative differences seen in thermal comfort for the various areas cannot be explained solely by the density or properties of the peripheral thermal receptors and thus must reflect processing mechanisms in the central nervous system.



研究成果概要:野球の投手が投ずるボールの動きはボールリリース直前の腕,手,指の動きによって決まる.特に指の動きは重要だが,この時点での指の動きは高速で,通常のビデオ映像では細かい動きはとらえられない.そのためピッチングの指の動きに関する研究はこ...野球の投手が投ずるボールの動きはボールリリース直前の腕,手,指の動きによって決まる.特に指の動きは重要だが,この時点での指の動きは高速で,通常のビデオ映像では細かい動きはとらえられない.そのためピッチングの指の動きに関する研究はこれまでほとんどない.そこで,申請者は高速ビデオを3台用いて手・指の動きをmm, msecの精度で測定するシステムを開発した.これを用いて投手のコントロールの良し悪しと腕・手・指の動きの関係を解析するのが本研究の目的である.【方法】大学野球投手3名の手背部10点にマーカーを貼付し,正規のマウンドから30球投球させた.捕手捕球動作をビデオカメラで撮影し,捕球位置の垂直成分,水平成分を算出した.ボール及び手・指の動きを3台のビデオカメラ(1000Hz)で撮影し,ボールの軌道,指の関節角度及び手部の空間における角度を算出した.3次元座標系は投手板中央2塁側を原点とし,1塁方向をY軸,捕手方向をX軸,垂直上方をZ軸として構築した.【結果】捕球位置垂直成分はXZ平面に,水平成分はXY平面に投影したボール投射角度と強く相関した(p<0.001).またボール投射角度XZ成分はBR時のXZ平面における手の倒れ角度と相関した(p<0.01).示指,中指の各関節の最大伸展角度と捕手捕球位置の間には相関関係が無かった.【結論】ボールコントロールにはBR時の手部倒れ角度が重要な要因であることが示唆された.投球のパフォーマンスの実体が明らかになれば,それを具体的に実現するためのトレーニング法,投法の開発に結びつくであろう.とくに手,指の動作を知ることはパフォーマンスと体の動きのインターフェースを知ることである.たとえ手・指の動きを直接調節することは難しくとも(実際この動作フェイズは高速であるために,ほとんど意識できない)その動きが明らかになれば,それを実現するための腕,体の動きを意識することは出来,結果的に科学的なトレーニング法開発につながるであろう.


2010年度共同研究者:中田大貴, 坂本 将基

研究成果概要: 多くのスポーツでは「脳機能の優劣がパフォーマンスを決める」と考えられる。競技者は短時間に様々な判断をしなくてはならず、複雑な神経動作が瞬時に遂行されていると考えられる。そのため、素早くかつ正確な動作を行うためには、あらかじめ運動... 多くのスポーツでは「脳機能の優劣がパフォーマンスを決める」と考えられる。競技者は短時間に様々な判断をしなくてはならず、複雑な神経動作が瞬時に遂行されていると考えられる。そのため、素早くかつ正確な動作を行うためには、あらかじめ運動の準備が必要であり、大きく分けて2種類の運動準備過程があると考えられる。1つは「自発性運動の準備」である。例えば、ゴルフや体操のように、外部刺激にはよらず、自分のタイミングで動作の準備を行う動作のことである。もう1つが「刺激始動性運動の準備」で陸上競技のスタート時のような準備動作である。このような運動準備は、長年のトレーニングによって上達し、また運動準備を司る中枢神経系においても可塑的変化が生じる、と推察される。脳内の随意運動の準備過程を客観的に評価するために、脳波を記録し、運動関連脳電位(Movement-related cortical potentials: MRCPs)の活動様態を検討することがこれまでに行われている。運動関連脳電位とは、自発性動作に先行して約1.5秒前から記録される、陰性緩電位のことである。本研究では、アスリートにおける運動関連脳電位の特性を明らかにすることを目的とし、実験対象を陸上選手短距離選手、野球経験者、一般成人で全員男性とした。被験者は20~29歳(平均23.4歳)の健康成人男性31名(野球経験者9名、陸上短距離種目経験者12名、一般成人10名)であった。被験者は、安楽椅子に腰を掛け安静開眼状態で、2つの実験課題、①右手第III指(中指)伸展動作、②左手第III指(中指)伸展動作行った。2つの課題は約7秒に1回のセルフペースでそれぞれ80回行った。脳波の記録は国際10-20法に準じてFz、Cz、Pz、C3、C4の5部位に電極を配置し、基準電極を両耳朶とした。左右手第III指(中指)の伸展動作を計測するために、左右の総指伸筋の活動を記録した。運動関連脳電位の全平均波形の様態として、野球経験者は右手指動作課題では振幅が大きいのに対して、左手指動作課題では、特にC4、Pzで振幅が小さくなっていた。右手指動作課題に注目してみると、陸上経験者の振幅が小さくなっていた。運動関連脳電位のそれぞれの成分(Bereitschaftspotential: BP, Negativity Slope: NS’, Motor potential: MP)における振幅について、陸上選手短距離選手(経験者)、野球選手(経験者)、一般成人の間で統計的に有意差はなかったが、先行研究でも統一した見解は得られていない。Hatta et al (2009)は、BPとNS’の振幅は、剣道の選手と一般成人群は変わらないという結果が出ている。しかし、MPは剣道選手の方が一般成人よりも統計的に有意に振幅が大きい、としている。本実験は有意差こそ無かったが、振幅が野球経験者で大きくなる傾向があり、Hatta et alの結果を支持するものと考えられる。



研究成果概要: 姿勢制御を困難にする「眼が回る」状態を産み出している原因として、眼振と呼ばれる無意識的で不規則な眼球運動の発現がある。生理学的に、眼振は、回転刺激を感知する半規管もしくは耳石器からの眼球運動への信号入力によって、回転刺激による視... 姿勢制御を困難にする「眼が回る」状態を産み出している原因として、眼振と呼ばれる無意識的で不規則な眼球運動の発現がある。生理学的に、眼振は、回転刺激を感知する半規管もしくは耳石器からの眼球運動への信号入力によって、回転刺激による視覚の歪みを最小限に留める反射である。回転中はその刺激により、眼振が起こることは明白であるが、回転を終えた後であっても、定常状態に戻るまで眼振はしばらく続き、これを回転後眼振と呼ぶ。回転後眼振の持続時間は、回転訓練により減少することやスポーツ選手は回転後眼振の持続時間が非スポーツ選手に比べて明らかに短いことが報告されている(Clement et al. 2002)。一方で、スポーツ選手はその前庭系の半規管からの入力に誘発される眩暈を、回転中に随意的に視覚入力を制限することで回転後の眼振を防止する戦略を競技経験則から取っていることが言われている。しかし、これまでにスポーツ選手と一般人について視覚入力条件を変化させた場合の回転後の前庭反射の神経機構を検討した研究はない。そこで、本研究では、回転系競技であるフィギュアスケート及びダンスを専門種目とするスポーツ選手6名(アスリート群)と一般人6名(コントロール群)を対象として、それらの関係を明らかにすることを目的とした。方法として、133 degree/secの速度で回転する椅子に着座した被験者の回転中及び回転後眼振を眼電図(EOG)を用いて測定した。その際の視覚入力条件は、眼球から30cm先に位置する球状の目標物を注視するFixation条件課題(以下、F条件)と、目標物を置かず、視覚入力を制限しないNon Fixation条件課題(以下、NF条件)、目隠しゴーグルを用いて視覚入力を遮断するBlind条件課題(以下、B条件)の3種類を行った。解析では、それらの条件で得られた眼電位から緩徐相を抽出し、その積算値から各条件における眼振の大きさを比較検討した。 その結果、回転後眼振の積算量は、コントロール群ではF条件、NF条件で同等量の約150 degreeとなった。アスリート群では、F条件で約130 degreeとなったのに対し、NF条件では約80 degreeとなり、視覚入力条件の違いによって回転後眼振に差が見られた。また、B条件ではどちらの群においてもそのほかの2条件課題よりも有意に大きくなる傾向が見られ、コントロール群で約400 degree、アスリート群で約550 degreeとなった。 以上のことから、視覚入力を遮断した環境においては、眼球運動制御に前庭系の入力のみを直接受けることから眼振の積算量が大きくなることが予想される。それに対して、視覚情報入力を許容した場合視覚系の入力によって、前庭系からの入力が抑制され、その結果、積算量が減少したと推察される。本研究から、これまで経験的にスポーツ選手が回転中の随意的な視覚入力制限によって回転後の眩暈を防止を行っていたことが、科学的に真実である可能性が示唆される結果となった。しかし、その詳細な脳内メカニズムについては今後研究を進め明らかにしていく必要があると考える。



研究成果概要: 「歩く」や「走る」に代表されるヒトや動物の移動運動動作は中枢神経系における特殊な神経機構によって生成される。またそのような神経機構にはある種の階層性が存在することが近年の動物実験によって明らかにされてきた。例えば、同じ筋肉を使用... 「歩く」や「走る」に代表されるヒトや動物の移動運動動作は中枢神経系における特殊な神経機構によって生成される。またそのような神経機構にはある種の階層性が存在することが近年の動物実験によって明らかにされてきた。例えば、同じ筋肉を使用する魚の泳ぎでも、泳ぎ方の違いによって動員される脊髄の神経細胞群は異なるものである。ヒトでも同様の階層性が存在する可能性が間接的な手法を用いた実験系によってごく最近示された。一定時間に及ぶ運動の継続によって中枢神経系に生じる「慣れ」を基盤としたものであり、異なる運動間における慣れの共有の有無はすなわち、各々の運動の遂行に内在する神経機構の共通性、もしくは個別性を示している。それぞれの運動を構成する神経機構がどのように成り立っているのか知ることはスポーツやリハビリなどのトレーニング戦略にとって重要であり、様々な移動運動についてさらに詳細に調べることが必要である。しかしながら、従来の実験系は慣れを誘発するための非常に大がかりな機器を必要とし、ごく限られた機関でのみ取り組みが可能なことから、より簡易な実験方法の確立が急務であった。そこで本課題においては、効果的に慣れを誘発するための簡易な外乱装置と関節角度計を用いた簡易な測定法の確立に取り組んだ。既にその個別性が明らかとなっているヒトの歩行と走行を対象の課題とした。 歩行または走行中の足部にゴムバンドを用いた力学的制約を課すと、その初期では運動パターンが大きく乱されるものの、時間経過とともに一定のパターンが獲得できる。すなわち慣れが生じる。その上で、制約を取り払うと通常の力学的環境であるにも関わらず通常通りの運動を遂行できない。力学的環境下でスムーズな歩様を実現するために生じた慣れがその後の通常環境下では異常な運動出力として顕在化した結果として捉えられる。しかしながら、歩行によって生じた慣れはその後、走行をしても顕在化しなかった。逆に、走行時に生じた慣れもまた、その後の歩行には影響しないことが、簡易なセンサーを用いた膝関節角度の変化より検出することができた。 従来は大がかりな測定を必要としていた当該の研究分野において、このように簡易な系を確立しつつあることで今後、ヒトの移動運動動作に内在する神経機構の共通性や個別性に関する議論が今後は加速的に進んでいくものと期待できる。


2014年度共同研究者:中川剣人, 戚 維璜



2015年度共同研究者:水口暢章, 加藤孝基

研究成果概要:優れた運動制御に関する脳内機序を解明することは、スポーツスキルの向上に繋がると考えられる。本研究では、スキルを要する系列指タッピングのイメージ中の脳活動を、機能的磁気共鳴画像法(functional magnetic resona...優れた運動制御に関する脳内機序を解明することは、スポーツスキルの向上に繋がると考えられる。本研究では、スキルを要する系列指タッピングのイメージ中の脳活動を、機能的磁気共鳴画像法(functional magnetic resonance imaging: fMRI)を用いて検討した。被験者は健常者29名であった。また、実際のタッピングの正確性も計測した。取得した脳活動データはStatistical Parametric Mapping 8を用いて解析した。高いスキルレベルと関連する脳活動をみつけるために解析を進めている。


2014年度共同研究者:中川 剣人, 戚 維璜



2017年度共同研究者:長谷川公輝, 中島 剛

研究成果概要:武道競技には攻防にすぐ移行できる構えという特有な姿勢がある。適切な構えを行うために、選手や指導者にとってこの構えのメカニズムを知ることは重要である。先行実験として、構えが姿勢制御の重要な要因の1つであるH反射に与える影響を検討した...武道競技には攻防にすぐ移行できる構えという特有な姿勢がある。適切な構えを行うために、選手や指導者にとってこの構えのメカニズムを知ることは重要である。先行実験として、構えが姿勢制御の重要な要因の1つであるH反射に与える影響を検討した。被験者は国内レベルの大学相撲選手(8人、競技歴10年以上)とした。軸足の脛骨神経に電気刺激(パルス幅200µs,インターバル3s)を行った。ヒラメ筋のEMGからH波とM波を測定し、電気刺激強度を徐々に増加させ、リクルートメントカーブを作成した。リクルートメントカーブから得たH波最大値(Hmax)をM波最大値(Mmax)で規格化した(%Hmax)。電気刺激は3つの姿勢時に行った。立位、試合をイメージしたときの構え(構え-イメージ)、イメージをしなかったときの構え(構え-イメージなし)である。この時、試合場面における、相手に対してできるだけ素早く反応できるイメージの教示を行った。これら3姿勢の%Hmaxの比較を行った。構え-イメージありにおける%Hmaxが一番高い値を出した被験者の数は、8人中6人だった。立位における%Hmaxが一番低い値を出した被験者の数は同じく8人中6人だった。また、それぞれの姿勢での平均%Hmaxは、立位48.92±16.09%、構え-イメージあり55.45±15.34%、構え-イメージなし53.21±14.35%であった。立位と構え(イメージあり)の%Hmaxに差がある傾向が見られた(P=0.062)。立位と構え-イメージなし、構え-イメージありと構え-イメージなしの間では差が見られなかった。%Hmaxは脊髄興奮性を表す(S. Grosprêtre et al. 2012)。実験結果から、構えのイメージと、構え姿勢が脊髄内興奮性を高める傾向があった。イメージ単体がH反射与える影響が無いことから(B. Hale, et al. 2003)、構え姿勢と相手に素早く反応するイメージを組み合わせることによって、H反射を亢進した。これは長年の練習や経験によるものだと考えられる。


2017年度共同研究者:後藤悠太, 欠畑 学

研究成果概要:「走能力は生まれつきの素質による」ものだと広く考えられているが、疾走能力にはランニングフォーム(技術)と強い関係がある。そこで、本研究では「正しいランニングフォーム」の重要性を検証、それを身につける方法を確立して「走能力は生まれつ...「走能力は生まれつきの素質による」ものだと広く考えられているが、疾走能力にはランニングフォーム(技術)と強い関係がある。そこで、本研究では「正しいランニングフォーム」の重要性を検証、それを身につける方法を確立して「走能力は生まれつきの素質による」というドグマを打ち破る事を目標とした。本年度の研究目的は「正しいランニングフォーム」の重要性の検証である。走能力の評価には走速度が頻繫に用いられる。走速度(m/s)はストライド(一歩の長さ)とケイデンス(単位時間あたりの歩数)の積で求められる。陸上競技選手を対象にした研究から、低速度では走速度の増加に伴いストライドが増加していき、高速度ではケイデンスが急激に増加する事が報告されている(Hay, 2002)。しかし、これらの特性は陸上競技選手のトレーニングによって後天的に獲得された可能性がある。そこで、この仮説を検証するために陸上競技選手と非陸上競技選手を対象に実験を行った。両群を対象に様々な走速度(m/s)で走行した際のストライド(m)とケイデンス(step/s)を算出した。その結果、5m/s未満における走速度の増加に陸上競技選手と非陸上競技選手(特に運動経験のない素人)で異なる傾向が得られた。その傾向とは、運動経験のない素人は陸上競技選手群よりも速度の増加にケイデンスの増加をより多く用いる事である。つまり、陸上競技選手を対象に広く報告されてきた走速度の変化に関する特性は陸上競技選手群がトレーニングによって後天的に獲得した可能性を示唆している。そして、このような特性の違いにはランニングフォームの差が関係していると考えられる。今後はこの特性の違いを引き起こすランニングフォームの差について、「効率」の側面から検討する。これによって「正しいランニングフォーム」について定量的に評価するための基準を確立する。











研究課題名: Closed Skillの学習へのコーチングの影響の解析


機関: ケルン体育大学(ドイツ)


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