フランク ビョーン (Bjoern FRANK)
博士（工学） 東京工業大学 経営学
|2012年08月-||AOTS (2012-現在)、上智大学 (2018)、東京農工大学 (2014-2017)、立教大学 (2014-2017)非常勤講師|
American Marketing Association
Academy of Marketing Science 論文誌「JAMS」編集委員会委員
2019年授与機関：Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
2017年授与機関：ANZMAC (Australian & New Zealand Marketing Academy) Conference
2016年授与機関：ANZMAC (Australian & New Zealand Marketing Academy) Conference
2013年授与機関：Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
2012年授与機関：Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
2011年授与機関：Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
2010年授与機関：Asian Network for Quality Congress
社会科学 / 経営学 / 商学
Y.F. Badir, B. Frank, M. Bogers
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science査読有りpublished online, print version forthcoming2019年-
概要：Leveraging external sources of knowledge has become a vital element of innovation strategy, especially in emerging markets, where many firms lack the sophisticated knowledge required to innovate. However, extant research in this domain puts little emphasis on emerging economies and also typically treats openness as a firm-level concept. In contrast, this study investigates how individual employees rely on both internal and external knowledge to increase their innovative work output (and, secondarily, their customer acquisition performance) and how their supervising manager’s characteristics moderate these mechanisms. Using hierarchical linear modeling of data collected from 123 employees and 50 managers in telecommunications companies in the emerging market of Vietnam, we find support for our hypothesized relationships. These findings have important implications for research and practice as they highlight the role of the individual employee in open innovation, the need for considering a more distributed set of organizational functions, and the relevance for emerging markets.
A. Kamolsook, Y.F. Badir, B. Frank
Technological Forecasting and Social Change査読有り140p.328 - 3402019年-
概要：This study explores consumers' motivations to switch to new products in the context of disruptive innovation, and investigates the role of technology differences (i.e., network externality vs. stand-alone technology). Switching from an existing technology product to a disruptive technology product (DTP) involves not only benefits but also requires major sacrifices, which are not encountered in the context of continuous innovation. To model the tradeoff between the benefits and sacrifices, this study extends the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model by introducing the construct of comparative economic value (CEV). Based on Thai consumer data, analyses support the hypothesized mediating role of CEV. CEV mediates the effects of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and facilitating conditions, and partially mediates the effect of social influence on the DTP switching intent. Multi-group analysis shows that CEV depends more on effort expectancy for network externality technology and more on the performance expectancy for stand-alone technology.
B. Herbas Torrico, B. Frank
Total Quality Management & Business Excellence査読有り30(3-4)p.355 - 3692019年-
概要：In order to satisfy customers, marketers increasingly provide customers with the means to personalise their products and services. Based on the social identity approach and international consumer data, this article explores the antecedents and consequences of consumer desires for internal personalisation (perceiving a distinctive identity) and external personalisation (communicating a distinctive identity) of products and services. In terms of antecedents, the results show that desire for (both internal and external) personalisation tends to be influenced negatively by age and positively by both individualism (vs. collectivism) and uncertainty avoidance. In terms of consequences, the results indicate that desire for personalisation moderates the formation of affective, but not cognitive, customer satisfaction. Moreover, desire for personalisation enhances the relative importance of perceived usage benefits, compared with physical performance, in customer evaluations of products and services. These results have important implications for the design and marketing of products and services.
B. Herbas Torrico, B. Frank, C. Arandia Tavera
International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility査読有り3(7)p.1 - 132018年-
概要：Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been studied extensively in developed countries. However, although most of the world’s consumers live in developing countries, the study of CSR in developing countries in general, and in Bolivia in particular, still is very limited. Developing countries are characterized by widespread poverty, corruption, inequality, social exploitation, and environmental pollution and, consequently, offer abundant opportunities for CSR. In addition, research on CSR in developing countries has the potential to promote equality, social justice, transparency, and accountability by holding frequently irresponsible local and international organizations to account. For that purpose, this study explores the nature of CSR practices and their effectiveness in influencing consumer attitudes in Bolivia as the least developed among the developing countries in the Americas. To this end, this study uses data collected in Bolivia through both structured surveys (quantitative data) and unstructured questionnaires/in-depth interviews (qualitative data). Using structural equation modeling of the quantitative data on two product categories and multiple brand contexts from 1016 consumers, this study tests a series of hypotheses on the consequences of CSR practices in developing countries. The results indicate that CSR practices exert both a direct influence on customer satisfaction and an indirect, mediated influence on customer loyalty. Moreover, the results of qualitative data analysis suggest that multinational companies and young managers are leading the way in implementing CSR practices in Bolivia. Managerial implications are discussed.
B. Frank, S.J. Schvaneveldt
Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services査読有り28p.199 - 2082016年-
概要：This study shows that not all consumers intend to decrease purchases of potentially contaminated products after disasters; some rather intend to increase purchases. Purchase intent reductions derive from contamination risk knowledge, which depends on observed behavior of other consumers, objective media information, and past opposition to the technology causing contamination. Technology hazard expertise reinforces the effects of consumers' risk assessments and of past opposition to technology use. By contrast, purchase intent increases derive from empathy and salient social identity shared with disaster victims, which are triggered by affect-laden media exposure, past disaster-related experience, and disaster involvement of consumers' social networks.
B. Frank, T. Enkawa, S.J. Schvaneveldt
Journal of Economic Psychology査読有り51p.261 - 2782015年-
概要：As repurchase intent drives profitability and firms are facing culturally diverse customers, managers should know how individualism (vs. collectivism) influences the formation of repurchase intent. This research models individualism as a dimension of both national culture and personal values. Based on HLM of data from six countries and ten industries, study 1 shows that cultural individualism is more influential than personal individualism. Individualism positively moderates the effect of customer satisfaction and negatively moderates the effects of public brand image and relational switching costs on repurchase intent. While the effects of customer satisfaction and relational switching costs are moderated more strongly for services, the effect of public brand image is moderated more strongly for products. Study 2 illuminates psychological processes operating behind these moderating effects: importance of relational switching costs – reliance on salespeople; importance of public brand image – meeting social preferences (impressing others, expressing group identify), but not trustworthiness; importance of customer satisfaction – customization, distinctiveness, but not functional benefits. This research also tests extant theories about the main effect of individualism on repurchase intent. The results provide valuable, novel suggestions for cross-cultural adaptation of marketing strategy.
B. Frank, T. Enkawa, S.J. Schvaneveldt, B. Herbas Torrico
Technological Forecasting and Social Change査読有り99p.252 - 2662015年-
概要：Managers use knowledge of innate consumer innovativeness (inherent interest in new products and services) to adapt the marketing mix to preferences of the consumers most likely to adopt new products/services. As mere interest in new products/services may not sufficiently characterize early adopters in contexts with price differences between established and innovative, new products/services, this article introduces the concept of innate willingness to pay for innovations (IWTPI). Based on data from Germany, Indonesia, Bolivia, USA, and Japan, it tests hypotheses about the antecedents to IWTPI, the moderating effects of IWTPI on the formation of customer satisfaction, and their differences between products and services. IWTPI tends to be positively influenced by income (satisfaction), financial expectations, and importance of status symbols and negatively influenced by female gender, savings orientation, and stress avoidance. These effects are moderated by cultural and economic factors. IWTPI positively moderates the effects of perceived quality (only for products, not services), competitive advantages, public brand image, and social recognition and negatively moderates the effect of perceived value on customer satisfaction. These results inform managers on how to adapt marketing strategy to early vs. late adopters in different country and industry contexts with price differences between established and innovative, new products/services.
B. Frank, B. Herbas Torrico, T. Enkawa, S.J. Schvaneveldt
Journal of Retailing査読有り90(4)p.567 - 5862014年-
概要：To support managerial practice and help improve analytical models in retailing, this article extends the literature on processes in the psychological chain of effects from perceived quality to customer loyalty by making three original and fundamental contributions. Based on multilevel structural equation modeling of consumer data from Bolivia, Japan, and the USA, it shows that product beliefs mediate this chain of effects and that cross-over effects connect rational and emotional processes within this chain. Moreover, it elucidates conditions moderating the strength of these emotional and rational processes. Breadth of experience positively moderates the mediating role of product beliefs. Relative price positively moderates the effect of hedonic product beliefs on affective customer satisfaction and negatively moderates the effect of utilitarian product beliefs on cognitive customer satisfaction. Time since purchase positively moderates the role of emotional processes and negatively moderates the role of rational processes. The moderating effects of sensory, affective, and intellectual brand experience support the predictive validity of the research model. Further analyses illuminate how social recognition, customer value co-creation through product usage patterns, and product-service bundling affect product beliefs, as well as how affective and cognitive customer satisfaction influence positive word-of-mouth.
B. Frank, S.J. Schvaneveldt
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management査読有り22(4)p.197 - 2082014年-
概要：This article extends the literature on consumer reactions to national disasters. Because of the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japanese consumers face the long‐term risk of radioactive product contamination as products come from contaminated regions. When facing this risk in purchase situations, Japanese consumers have the choice of reducing their purchases to protect personal health from perceived risk or increasing their purchases to economically support suffering Japanese regions. Based on analysis of variance and regression analysis of data on mobile phones and fast food restaurants from 99 consumers in Japan and 677 consumers in the United States, this study confirms that consumers respond to the risk of radioactive product contamination by reduced or increased purchase intent. Moreover, it finds that purchase intent reductions (vs. increases) vary by consumer age and are more pronounced for fast food restaurants than mobile phones, for non‐Japanese consumers in Japan and the United States than for Japanese consumers in Japan, and for more health‐conscious consumers. While purchase intent reductions only weakly depend on cultural values, they tend to be positively influenced by uncertainty avoidance and negatively influenced by individualism, masculinity values and long‐term orientation. This article thus informs policy makers and marketing managers on how to more effectively address psychological needs of different consumer segments to support the economic reconstruction of disaster‐stricken regions.
D.C. Wimalachandra, B. Frank, T. Enkawa
International Journal of Industrial Engineering: Theory, Applications and Practice査読有り21(6)p.348 - 3592014年-
概要：Many innovative firms have shifted to an ‘open innovation’ strategy by using a wide range of external information. An emerging area in the literature on new product development (NPD) deals with strategies adopted by NPD departments to maximize product quality. This article tests and demonstrates that the open innovation paradigm can be extended to the area of product quality control practices in the NPD process. Using data collected in 10 countries, this study investigates the importance of external information acquired through B2B/B2C customer, competitor, technology, and manufacturing orientation in meeting quality and performance specifications of newly developed products, and the interconnected roles of B2B and B2C customer orientation in meeting these specifications. The results show that B2C customer orientation alone is not beneficial for meeting quality and performance specifications of newly developed products in B2B contexts, whereas in the presence of B2B affective information management, B2C customer orientation helps firms meet these specifications.
B. Frank, T. Enkawa, S.J. Schvaneveldt
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science査読有り42(2)p.171 - 1852014年-
概要：As customers’ repurchase behavior leads to long-term corporate profitability, managers should know the success factors influencing repurchase intent. Knowledge of gender differences in these success factors would enable managers to separately optimize repurchase intent for men and women. This research thus develops original hypotheses on gender differences in the formation of repurchase intent. Based on hierarchical linear modeling of data from five countries and ten industries, this research finds that public brand image more strongly influences customer satisfaction and repurchase intent for women than for men. Perceived value has a weaker effect on repurchase intent for women than for men. The analyses do not detect any gender difference in the influence of customer satisfaction on repurchase intent. Contrary to conventional wisdom, relational switching costs more strongly influence repurchase intent for men than for women. Further analyses illustrate moderating effects of country differences in gender egalitarianism and of contextual differences between products and services.
B. Frank, G. Abulaiti, T. Enkawa
Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services査読有り21(2)p.203 - 2102014年-
概要：This study examines whether a single marketing strategy is sufficient to cover the Chinese market. Using data from four regions and nine industries, it finds that major regional differences in consumer preferences make regional market segmentation an attractive option. In more developed regions, consumers rely more on perceived quality and public brand image but less on quality expectations. Uyghurs care more about perceived quality and personal recognition but less about quality expectations than Han Chinese. Personal recognition is more important to southern than northern Chinese. Overall, consumer preference structures are influenced more strongly by differences in economic development than subculture.
D.C. Wimalachandra, B. Frank, T. Enkawa
Journal of Japanese Operations Management and Strategy査読有り4(2)p.46 - 612014年-
概要：While the importance of customer value creation has been confirmed in numerous studies in the literature, there is a lack of empirical studies on how new product development may optimize distinct types of B2B customer value. This study develops a conceptual framework considering four dimensions of B2B customer value (functional, cost, hedonic, and symbolic) and two dimensions of B2B customer orientation: needs orientation and relationship orientation. Based on data collected in 10 countries, hierarchical linear modeling is used to test hypotheses on the decomposed effects of these different B2B customer orientation approaches on the creation of each type of B2B customer value. Numerous theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed.
B. Frank, G. Abulaiti, B. Herbas Torrico, T. Enkawa
Journal of Business Research査読有り66(12)p.2397 - 24052013年-
概要：Little is known about international differences in the formation of customer satisfaction, particularly regarding developed and emerging markets in Asia. This lack of knowledge limits the competitiveness of Western companies in Asia. From the perspectives of economic and cultural country differences, this study thus compares customer satisfaction and its formation between Japan, China, and Germany (Western reference country). Customer satisfaction is higher in Japan than China for goods and private services but lower for public services. It is influenced more strongly by perceived quality and less strongly by perceived value (difference moderated by switching costs), public brand image, and quality expectations in Japan than China. Economic differences between developed (Japan, Germany) and emerging (China) markets influence consumer preference structures more strongly than cultural differences. Due to larger inter-Asian cultural variance than Western managers might expect, Chinese consumer preference structures differ more from Japanese than German consumer preference structures.
日本経営工学会論文誌査読有り63(4)p.201 - 2092013年-
B. Frank, G. Abulaiti, T. Enkawa
Marketing Letters査読有り23(3)p.683 - 7002012年-
概要：In order to profit from China’s enormous business opportunities, international firms need to know Chinese consumer preferences. To learn more about intrinsic Chinese consumer preferences and their distinction from other Asian consumer preferences, this study analyzes differences in the formation of customer satisfaction, repurchase intent, and word-of-mouth intent between Chinese-born and locally born consumers in Japan. Verifying culture-based hypotheses, cross-industry analyses show that Chinese-born consumers pay less attention to the public brand image and risk-related switching costs, but more attention to quality expectations, perceived value, experienced usefulness, and financial switching costs than Japanese consumers. Marketing strategies should account for these preference structures.
Managing Service Quality査読有り22(3)p.260 - 2822012年-
概要：Purpose – Past research showed that overly positive attitudes and intentions towards fast food contribute to obesity. In the face of rising childhood obesity, the purpose of this paper is to explore attitudinal and behavioral reasons behind adolescents' suboptimal food choices. It tests hypotheses about differences between teenagers and adults in customer attitudes and intentions regarding fast food restaurants. Design/methodology/approach – The hypotheses are tested with German survey data and moderated regression analysis. Findings – Teenagers do not underestimate the negative effects of fast food. However, their decision making fails to incorporate existing knowledge on competitive advantages and gives greater weight to customer satisfaction compared with adults. Behavioral differences between teenage and adult consumers result from differences in cognitive development rather than social pressure. Research limitations/implications – As this study uses subjective consumer data from Germany, future research could validate the conclusions with objective behavioral data from various countries. Practical implications – Of importance to fast food restaurant managers, the primary determinants of customer attitudes and intentions are food quality, the public brand image, social recognition, and perceived competitive advantages. By contrast, service quality and perceived value are less influential. Satisfying teenage customers is more important than informing them about competitive advantages. Social implications – The results imply that fast food‐related childhood obesity may be caused by lack of rationality rather than peer pressure or lack of knowledge. Originality/value – As an original contribution, the paper compares adolescents' and adults' decision making regarding fast food restaurants and captures the regularly overlooked influences of the public brand image, social recognition, and perceived competitive advantages.
品質査読有り42(3)p.95 - 1052012年-
概要：顧客維持や創造のためにCS向上の企業努力がなされる中,同時期におけるCSとマーケットシェアの関係は相関がないか,負の相関をもつというFornell等の研究が知られている.しかしながら,これはCS向上を目指す企業努力の正当性と矛盾しかねない.そこで本論文ではそのメカニズムを解明するために, CS関連指標とシェアとの関係は,製品・サービスや国によって異なるという仮説のもとに, 8つの国・地域そして8つの製品・サービスのCS関連指標の調査を行った.その結果,先進国か新興国かの国の成熟度と,製品・サービスのその国における相対CS尺度という2つの媒介変数が,両者の関係に介在していること,そして先進国で相対CSが低い製品・サービスのみFornell等の見解は成り立つ,新興国や先進国でも相対CSが高い製品・サービスでは,相関がないかむしろ正の相関をもつことを, CSだけでなく知覚品質,知覚価値,企業イメージ等のCS関連尺度との関係を含めて明らかにした.
G. Abulaiti, B. Frank, T. Enkawa, S.J. Schvaneveldt
Journal of Marketing Channels査読有り18(4)p.353 - 3732011年-
概要：China is becoming one of the world's most attractive retail markets. Though the literature lacks a comprehensive theory on country differences in the formation of customer satisfaction, such knowledge would enable foreign retailers to better adapt their marketing strategies to Chinese consumers. This study creates such a theory and tests it with data from seven countries. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that country differences in economic development and culture influence both (a) the level of customer satisfaction and (b) how customer satisfaction is influenced by its antecedents. Additional analyses specifically inform foreign retailers about how to adapt to Chinese consumer needs.
品質査読有り40(2)p.69 - 772010年-
日本経営工学会誌査読有り60(2)p.87 - 942009年-
品質査読有り39(1)p.119 - 1282009年-
B. Frank, T. Enkawa
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis査読有り2(1)p.6 - 202009年-
概要：Purpose – Sociologists are discussing whether or not economic growth enhances subjective well‐being. To complement their research from a housing perspective, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether aggregate income enhances dwelling satisfaction over time. While cross‐sectional studies have only examined the direct influence of income on dwelling satisfaction, this paper suggests that there are additional influences mediated by other social indicators. Design/methodology/approach – Based on data from Germany, correlation and regression analyses examine the impacts of aggregate income and other social indicators on dwelling satisfaction. Path analysis is used to test for the existence of mediated relationships. Findings – The paper finds that aggregate income positively influences dwelling satisfaction. Environmental satisfaction, customer satisfaction and satisfaction with family relations also positively impact dwelling satisfaction and mediate influences of aggregate income. The mediated effects are stronger than the direct effect of aggregate income on dwelling satisfaction. Research limitations/implications – The longitudinal availability of aggregate customer satisfaction data is still limited. Future research on dwelling satisfaction is encouraged to account for customer satisfaction and to reexamine the analyses of this study with future data. Practical implications – Stimulating economic growth is a good strategy to improve dwelling satisfaction. Policies improving the environment, family support and shopping opportunities are also effective. Originality/value – This paper is original in that it examines the impacts of economic growth and customer satisfaction on dwelling satisfaction. While the extant literature has only analysed direct effects of income on dwelling satisfaction, this study also accounts for mediated effects.
B. Frank, T. Enkawa
International Journal of Business Environment査読有り2(3)p.336 - 3552009年-
概要：The marketing literature has extensively analysed firm-level influences on customer satisfaction. Since macro-level customer satisfaction data have not become available until recently, researchers have just taken first steps towards analysing economic influences on customer satisfaction. Identifying economic influences is important because their existence would impair the interpretability of corporate customer satisfaction surveys. Using principal component and regression analyses, we examine economic influences on customer satisfaction across a number of countries: Denmark, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Sweden and the USA. Our analyses reveal that economic expansion exerts a positive influence on customer satisfaction, whereas economic expectations exert a negative influence. As a measure to improve today's quality management practices, we thus recommend that firms correct the scores of multiperiod customer satisfaction surveys for economic influences.
B. Frank, S. Sudo, T. Enkawa
査読有り19(1)p.15 - 392009年-
概要：Recent research discovered that economic processes influence national averages of customer satisfaction. Using time-series data from Japanese and South Korean hospitals, we conducted principal component regression analyses to examine whether these findings are transferable to patient satisfaction. Our results reveal that aggregate income has a positive impact and economic expectations have a negative impact on patient satisfaction. Further analyses demonstrate that these strong economic influences make it difficult for hospital managers to use patient satisfaction scores to assess the performance impact of their customer-oriented actions. In order to improve performance evaluations based on patient surveys, we thus recommend managers to remove economic influences from time-series of patient satisfaction.
B. Frank, T. Enkawa
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy査読有り29(7/8)p.313 - 3292009年-
概要：Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether economic growth enhances life satisfaction. It provides a conceptual solution to the heavily debated Easterlin paradox which states that aggregate income positively relates to life satisfaction in one‐time international comparisons but not in longitudinal analyses. First empirical results are presented for Germany. Design/methodology/approach – The present study uses path analysis to capture not only direct but also mediated effects of economic growth on life satisfaction. Findings – The paper finds that economic growth does enhance life satisfaction over time. The effect is not direct but mediated via consumer confidence, customer satisfaction, income satisfaction, health satisfaction and job satisfaction. Modeled by consumer confidence, adaptive expectations reduce this effect but cannot entirely compensate for it, as suggested by literature. In addition to this negative compensatory effect which is mediated by customer satisfaction, consumer confidence has a positive direct influence on life satisfaction. Research limitations/implications – Since the history of aggregate customer satisfaction measurement is still young, this empirical analysis should be seen as pioneer work. Future research on the Easterlin paradox should utilize future data, model mediated relationships and time lags, and integrate customer satisfaction and consumer confidence. Practical implications – Economic growth strategies are successful in raising life satisfaction. Governments should not only pay attention to quantitative but also to qualitative growth. Collective optimism can improve life satisfaction. Originality/value – This study contributes to solving the Easterlin paradox. Unlike the extant literature on the Easterlin paradox, this paper integrates national customer satisfaction and consumer confidence into a sociologic model and explicitly accounts for mediated effects. National customer satisfaction is used to model qualitative aspects of economic growth.
B. Frank, T. Enkawa
International Journal of Consumer Studies査読有り33(1)p.72 - 812009年-
概要：Consumer research has extensively analysed psychological determinants of customer satisfaction. As macro‐level customer satisfaction data were not available until recently, researchers have only taken first steps towards analysing economic determinants of customer satisfaction. Based on a more complex conceptual framework and on data from Germany and Japan, this article examines how economic processes influence the perceived value of goods and services, quality expectations and customer satisfaction. Using principal component analysis, regression analysis and structural equation modelling, this study finds that perceived value is positively influenced by both economic growth and lagged economic expectations. Customer satisfaction is positively influenced by economic growth and negatively by current economic expectations, with half of the impact mediated by perceived value. Economic expectations positively influence expectations regarding the quality of goods and services. These results imply that consumer researchers should no longer ignore economic influences on consumer attitudes. Marketing managers are advised to be cautious not to misinterpret economic‐induced variations in customer satisfaction as caused by corporate performance.
B. Frank, T. Enkawa
International Journal of Society Systems Science査読有り1(2)p.113 - 1312008年-
概要：Sociologists have been arguing whether aggregate income enhances subjective well-being and, more specifically, satisfaction with the standard of living. The empirical results were mixed. This article suggests that aggregate income affects standard-of-living satisfaction not only directly but also indirectly. Using path analysis and a dataset from Germany, this study finds that absolute income, short-term income fluctuations, and income inequality do not have direct impacts on standard-of-living satisfaction. However, they have indirect impacts mediated by income satisfaction, aggregate customer satisfaction, and satisfaction with the household role. Hence, public policy can rely on economic growth to enhance standard-of-living satisfaction. Government must ensure that economic growth translates into more satisfactory consumption experiences and that growing economic activity rather strengthens than divides families. Future sociological research should account for mediated effects of aggregate income on subjective well-being and no longer ignore the role of customer satisfaction.
B. Frank, T. Enkawa
Asia Pacific Management Review査読有り13(2)p.531 - 5442008年-
概要：Changes in customer satisfaction are usually linked to a firm’s performance in satisfying its clients or to developments within its direct competitive environment. In order to correctly interpret such changes in corporate consumer surveys, managers should also account for macroeconomic influences on customer satisfaction. Using data from national consumer barometers in Germany, South Korea, Sweden, and the United States, this study reveals that economic growth positively affects customer satisfaction. Based on correlation analysis and Granger tests, these results challenge recent studies claiming that, conversely, there is a unidirectional impact of customer satisfaction on economic growth. With more comprehensive data from Germany, structural equation modeling shows that economic growth drives customer satisfaction via the expansion of the average consumer’s budget and via an increasing perceived value of offerings. The effect is stronger in high-tech industries, industries with rapid innovation cycles, and industries with fierce price competition.
|Green Marketing １||商学部||2019||秋学期|
|International Consumer Behavior １||商学部||2019||春学期|