Name

HOSSAIN, Tania

Official Title

Professor

Affiliation

(School of Culture, Media and Society)

Contact Information

Mail Address

Mail Address
kstania2@waseda.jp
Mail Address(Others)
kstania2@hotmail.com

URL

Grant-in-aids for Scientific Researcher Number
40609450

Educational background・Degree

Degree

Ph.D. Coursework International Christian University Linguistics

Others Basic Information

COURSES a. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) b. Minority Languages in English Dominant Countries c. English Language Education Policy in East and Southeast Asia d. English Language Education Policy in South Asia e. Language Policy in the English-speaking World f. English as a Global Language g. English Education in Japan h. English for Professional Purposes (EPP) i. English for Academic Purposes (EAP) j. Cinema Englishrr

Research Field

Keywords

3001

Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research classification

Humanities / Linguistics / Linguistics

Research interests Career

English Language Education Policy in Bangladeh

Individual research allowance

On-campus Research System

Special Research Project

Globalization and English Language Education Policy in Bangladesh

2012

Research Results Outline:Globalization and English Language Education Policy in BangladeshThe emergeGlobalization and English Language Education Policy in BangladeshThe emergence of the 20th century nation Bangladesh is, for...Globalization and English Language Education Policy in BangladeshThe emergence of the 20th century nation Bangladesh is, for the Bangladeshi people, one of the glorious hours in the history of nation-building. The vision of Bangladesh naturally encompassed hopes and aspirations for the Bengali language, as seen in the Bengali Language Movement. However, the excitement and passion for the language was short lived. In 1975, the fall of the government changed national life and identity. Bengali also suffered a set back. The status of English re-appeared. Many English medium schools swung back in view at that time and many private schools with foreign tastes and high fees were established. This situation still prevails in Bangladesh. Within a population of 160 million, it is estimated that only 3 percent of Bangladeshi people can speak English, and not all of them with great proficiency. Ninety-eight percent of the total population uses Bengali as their first language. However, Bengali has not acquired the honor that it perhaps deserves. The literacy rate at present is 48.7 percent (1998-BBS). Although in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh it is stated that, education should be free and compulsory for all children to such a stage as will be determined by law (Constitution of Bangladesh, Article.17a, P.7) in practice such literacy and education is not to be seen. Many know the alphabet but cannot read books. The vast majority of the population does not know the correct usage of Bengali. Actually, many do not know Bengali in the functional literacy sense. Those who know Bengali need not use it in their socio-economic life. Their social and commercial interaction actually tends to be carried out in English not in Bengali. Thus, Bengali is not properly used either by the very rich or the very poor people in Bangladesh. This is one of the reasons for giving up writing books in Bengali. The Readers are very few. Books are expensive to print and difficult to sell. This problem actually emerges from the deep-seated socio-political and economic problem of Bangladesh . After independence, the status of English became further enhanced in Bangladesh. The medium of instruction in higher education is English. Middle and lower middle class parents tried their best to send their children to the English medium schools. For some parents, for practical reasons, the importance of English is greater than Bengali. Interest in the learning of the English language is not declining but the proficiency of English is declining. As a second language, English is crucially important. However, the most important question is whether the Bangladeshi needs to learn English from the first grade of elementary school. There are many students who learned English from the age of five but they do not understand it. Learning English from grade one does not reveal its importance as an international language but it does express its importance as an element in school education. As reflected from the historical documents, for international communication, English is important. In spite of the fact that English plays an important role for the development of Bangladesh, English is important for economic and financial reasons since work abroad is one very significant way of solving unemployment and earning foreign exchange. However, all the economic rewards still accrue to English rather than Bengali. At present it seems that the English language will function as a most important linguistic vehicle in the development of Bangladesh. English in Bangladesh is a prestigious language and it is also a language of power. It is a marker of economic prosperity and social mobility. English is highly esteemed. This situation is stable; nationalism is now taking second place to economic security and prosperity. Bengali seems to be a hopeful if idealistic symbol of social equality: unlike the elite symbolism of English. Within a certain socioeconomic group, the upper class and sometimes middle class people use English for everyday conversation and interaction. It is considered to be a sign of affectation, of putting one over one’s peers of considering oneself better than they are. English is something which determines how life should be lived in Bangladesh. It is not only a struggle for power but also a struggle for possession between the elite and the rural people. Bengali may possibly take over this role but it seems that it is a long process. The purpose of the research was to find out in what ways Bangladesh responded to the globalization and what role has its language policy played? Bangladeshi people are motivated towards English instrumentally not integratively. This implies that English is not a competitor of Bengali but a complement to Bengali. English has been taught in Bangladesh as a compulsory subject for over 150 years but it was never the medium of instruction. It is now used in Bangladesh in different places. The motivation to learn English especially now among the middle lower middle classes is as high as ever because of the access it gives to jobs abroad: in the Middle East and in other parts of Asia such as Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia and also in Europe such as Britain, America, etc. Not only for work in foreign countries but also for getting jobs inside the country, a knowledge of English is necessary. There is hardly a high range or middle-range job, which cannot be obtained without a knowledge of English. However jobs advertised by certain institutions and organizations, such as international companies, embassies and high commissions, UN organizations, and some local commercial companies, specify requirements for competence in both Bengali and English language. The historical books and documents used in this study proved reliable and helpful. Recent Governmental data such as the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), Bangladesh bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) were used in this study. The journals and newspapers used in this study are well known and current in Bangladesh. The result shows that in Bangladesh English is not connected with the global capitalism rather it is related with the individual opportunity. Time was not adequate to collect comprehensive historical data and no complete lists of subject-based results of the national exams could be located. Interviews of the policy planner would be needed to fine more reliable results. The findings of the study be might be frustrating to all those people including myself who want a better future for their country and their children. This is the hard reality. Revision of the curriculum, teaching-learning procedures and evaluation systems, needs to start immediately. It is not only the solemn duty of government and policy planners but it is the duty of all contentious members of society.

Globalization and English Language Education Policy in Bangladesh

2013

Research Results Outline:Globalization and English Language Education Policy in BangladeshBangladeshGlobalization and English Language Education Policy in BangladeshBangladesh is trying to respond to the needs of globalizati...Globalization and English Language Education Policy in BangladeshBangladesh is trying to respond to the needs of globalization and it gives importance to the preservation of the national identity. Bangladesh suffers from continual poverty and more than half of the population is living under the poverty line and over the half of the population is illiterate. Past research shows that poor students have less chance of completing any given education cycle than more affluent ones. Both Bangla and English play significant roles in the education systems of Bangladesh. But English is one of the major languages of education and employment. Past research shows that learning English contributes to the social and economic inequality. This situation still prevails in Bangladesh. Within a population of 160 million, it is estimated that only 3 percent of Bangladeshi people can speak English, and not all of them with great proficiency. Ninety-eight percent of the total population uses Bengali as their first language. However, Bengali has not acquired the honor that it perhaps deserves. The literacy rate at present is 48.7 percent (1998-BBS). Although in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh it is stated that, education should be free and compulsory for all children to such a stage as will be determined by law (Constitution of Bangladesh, Article.17a, P.7) in practice such literacy and education is not to be seen. Many know the alphabet but cannot read books. The vast majority of the population does not know the correct usage of Bengali. Actually, many do not know Bengali in the functional literacy sense. Those who know Bengali need not use it in their socio-economic life. Their social and commercial interaction actually tends to be carried out in English not in Bengali. Thus, Bengali is not properly used either by the very rich or the very poor people in Bangladesh. This is one of the reasons for giving up writing books in Bengali. The Readers are very few. Books are expensive to print and difficult to sell. This problem actually emerges from the deep-seated socio-political and economic problem of Bangladesh . After independence, the status of English became further enhanced in Bangladesh. The medium of instruction in higher education is English. Middle and lower middle class parents tried their best to send their children to the English medium schools. For some parents, for practical reasons, the importance of English is greater than Bengali. Interest in the learning of the English language is not declining but the proficiency of English is declining. As a second language, English is crucially important. However, the most important question is whether the Bangladeshi needs to learn English from the first grade of elementary school. There are many students who learned English from the age of five but they do not understand it. Learning English from grade one does not reveal its importance as an international language but it does express its importance as an element in school education. As reflected from the historical documents, for international communication, English is important. In spite of the fact that English plays an important role for the development of Bangladesh, English is important for economic and financial reasons since work abroad is one very significant way of solving unemployment and earning foreign exchange. However, all the economic rewards still accrue to English rather than Bengali. At present it seems that the English language will function as a most important linguistic vehicle in the development of Bangladesh. English in Bangladesh is a prestigious language and it is also a language of power. It is a marker of economic prosperity and social mobility. English is highly esteemed. This situation is stable; nationalism is now taking second place to economic security and prosperity. Bengali seems to be a hopeful if idealistic symbol of social equality: unlike the elite symbolism of English. Within a certain socioeconomic group, the upper class and sometimes middle class people use English for everyday conversation and interaction. It is considered to be a sign of affectation, of putting one over one’s peers of considering oneself better than they are. English is something which determines how life should be lived in Bangladesh. It is not only a struggle for power but also a struggle for possession between the elite and the rural people. Bengali may possibly take over this role but it seems that it is a long process. The purpose of the research was to find out in what ways Bangladesh responded to the globalization and what role has its language policy played? Bangladeshi people are motivated towards English instrumentally not integratively. This implies that English is not a competitor of Bengali but a complement to Bengali. English has been taught in Bangladesh as a compulsory subject for over 150 years but it was never the medium of instruction. It is now used in Bangladesh in different places. The motivation to learn English especially now among the middle lower middle classes is as high as ever because of the access it gives to jobs abroad: in the Middle East and in other parts of Asia such as Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia and also in Europe such as Britain, America, etc. Not only for work in foreign countries but also for getting jobs inside the country, a knowledge of English is necessary. There is hardly a high range or middle-range job, which cannot be obtained without a knowledge of English. However jobs advertised by certain institutions and organizations, such as international companies, embassies and high commissions, UN organizations, and some local commercial companies, specify requirements for competence in both Bengali and English language. The result shows that in Bangladesh English is not connected with the global capitalism rather it is related with the individual opportunity. Time was not adequate to collect comprehensive historical data and no complete lists of subject-based results of the national exams could be located. Interviews of the policy planner would be needed to fine more reliable results. Purpose of this research is to find out how language policies are linked with national ideologies and with social inequalities and also argues how Bangladesh has competed with the demands of globalization.A two-pronged ethnographic method-(a)depth interviews with the key policy planners, and (b)historical document analysis-will use to answer the following questions:1.

Equalizing Educational Systems of Bangladesh

2014Collaborator:Tania Hossain

Research Results Outline:English was introduced into South Asia bythe British. Almost all post –coloEnglish was introduced into South Asia bythe British. Almost all post –colonial countries in South AsiaEnglish was introduce...English was introduced into South Asia bythe British. Almost all post –colonial countries in South AsiaEnglish was introduced into South Asia bythe British. Almost all post –colonial countries in South Asia like,Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Nepal long period of economic, linguistic andpolitical domination.In Bangladesh, English plays an important role in everydayactivities, along with Bangla.  Thispaper examines the linguistics impact of English on South Asia, particularly onBangladesh.Like many other Islamic countries, English plays an important rolein the educational systems of Bangladesh. It is used as a second-languagealthough it is spoken only by 3% of the population. Bangladesh suffers fromcontinual poverty and more than half of the population is living under thepoverty line. English plays two important roles in Bangladesh. The medium ofeducation- Bengali or English – distinguishes the well- educated andeconomically advantaged urban dwellers from the undereducated and economicallydistressed rural population. A three-pronged ethnographic method—(a) depth interviews with keypolicy planners; (b) non-participatory classroom observation; and (b)historical document analysis—was used to answer the research questions. What are the relationshipbetween the English and educational equality in Bangladesh?  Results indicated that English is linked with the individualopportunity. Bangladesh takesEnglish as their medium of instruction ineducation not because this country has a huge contribution in the globaleconomy but because English is necessary to survive in Bangladesh. Bangladeshi studentshave a positive attitude toward English, which is regarded as a language ofopportunity and is no longer regarded as a burden of colonialism.  In South Asia, English is generally notviewed as a colonial burden but as an international or neutral language. Englishoffers significant economic opportunity and privileges for its speakers. Thuspublic pressure for English language teaching at an early age is widespread.However, for most children, English language proficiency is quite low becauseof the low quality of English language education. Thus, the present policycontinues to support advantages for groups having access to English education,while contributing to the ongoing educational difficulties facing the rural andurban poor. This paper calls for language planning and policy that emphasizepedagogic equity.

Foreign Countries Research Activity

Research Project Title: Language Education in Bangladesh:Policy and Inequality(Book Project)

2017/04-2018/03

Affiliation: Visiting Professor(Bangladesh)

Lecture Course

Course TitleSchoolYearTerm
Core Lecture 1School of Culture, Media and Society2019spring semester
Core Lecture 2(RE)School of Culture, Media and Society2019fall semester
Introduction to Cultures of the English-speaking World 1School of Culture, Media and Society2019fall semester
Introduction to Cultures of the English-speaking World 1School of Humanities and Social Sciences2019fall semester
Forgotten Histories of Japan and the WorldSchool of Culture, Media and Society2019spring semester
Forgotten Histories of Japan and the WorldSchool of Humanities and Social Sciences2019spring semester
Seminar on Language, Culture and English Education (Spring)School of Culture, Media and Society2019spring semester
Seminar on Language, Culture and English Education (Fall)School of Culture, Media and Society2019fall semester
Intensive Studies 21 (Education 1)School of Culture, Media and Society2019spring semester
Intensive Studies 21 (Education 1)School of Humanities and Social Sciences2019spring semester
Intensive Studies 21 (Education 1)Graduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences2019spring semester
English Linguistics: Research SeminarGraduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences2019spring semester
English Linguistics: Research SeminarGraduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences2019fall semester
English Linguistics 1Graduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences2019spring semester
English Linguistics 2Graduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences2019fall semester
English Linguistics 1-1: SeminarGraduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences2019spring semester
English Linguistics 1-2: SeminarGraduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences2019fall semester
English Linguistics 1-1: Research SeminarGraduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences2019spring semester
English Linguistics 1-2: Research SeminarGraduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences2019fall semester